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beam, that glittered with jewels, rose two fatues of pure gold, each a cubit in height, the one reprelenting Peace, the other War; over whose heads a golden eagle, the banner of Persia, spread its wings, as if to fanction the choice of the nations, whether boitile or pacific. Two thousand chosen horse, the king's body-guard, followed the royal car; succeeded by twenty thouland foot, armed with javelins decked with pomegranates of gold and silver. Ten thousand horie brought up the rear of the army of native Persians. The rest of the innumerable host followed at a distance, in feparate divisions, according to the nations which they respectively reprefented.

- The citadel of Sufa is said to have been the great treasure-house of the kingdom : in it the ancient records of the Persian empire, from its foundation, were preserved. We are informed, by Diodorus, thac Alexander carried away from this plundered capital no less than nine thousand talents of coined gold, and of gold and silver bullion forty thousand talents*. It muít, however, have been in the more ancient periods of the empire that Susa was the chief treasury; because, great as this fun appears, it is comparatively trifiing to what, according to the fame author, trat infatiable plunderer of the wealth of Asia found at Persepolis, which amounted to such an enormous fum, that, besides three thousand camels which were loaded with it, all the adjoining countries were drained of their mules, alles, and other beasts of bure then, to convey it away from a city, on which he wreaked his particular and unrelenting vengeance, in return for the impolitic burning of the Grecian temples by Xerxest. The total aggregate, in bullion, obtained 'at Persepolis, Diodorus ftates at one hundred and twenty thousand talents of gold, indeixodent of the precious gems, the costly furniture, the vessels of chryftal and agate, the rests of Tyrian purple and gold embroidery, found in profufion in the houses of the Persian nobles and merchants. At the taking of Damafcus, after the batile of Illus, he found in the royal coffers two thousand fix hundred talents, in coined money, and five hundred in bullion, and with the other ireafures, taken in that wealthy city, Joaded seven thousand mules. Ten thousand talents, at one time, and thirty thousand at another, were the fums offered by Darius 19 Alexander, as the rantom of his caprive wife and daughters. The battle of Arbela put him in potletion of all the coftly utensils and fplendid equipages of Darius, with four thousand talents in moner. in Pasargada ie found fix thousand talents; and, in the royal city of Ecbatana, according to Strabo, no less than one hundred and eighty thoutand talents.” P. 436,

With respect to the treasures wafted by the tail of commerce, from every country of the habitable globe to the shores of India, in exchange for its valuable productions, they are thus accounicd for :

* Diodorus Siculus, lib. xviii. cap. 66.
"t Ibid. lib. xvii. p. 63.
• Strabonis Geograph, lib. xv. p. 741."

" The

• The principal use, to which the Indians seem to have applied the immenfe quantity of bullion, from age to age imported into their em pire, was, to melt it down into ftatues of their deities; if, indeed, by that title we may denominate the personified attributes of the Al mighty and the elements of nature. Their pagodas were anciently crowded with these golden and filver ftatues; they thought any inferior metal must degrade the Divinity, and the facred emanations that issued from the Source of all Being. Every house, too, was crowded with the statues of their ancestors, caft in gold and silver; those ancestors that were exalted to the stars for their piety or valour. This custom of erecting golden ftatues, in their houses and temples, to brave and virtuous men, seems to have remained long after the time of Alexander; for, we are cold, by Apollonius, that he saw in India two golden fatues of that hero, and two of brass, representing Porus, the conquered Porus, and therefore of inferior metal*. The very altar of the temple was of masly gold; the incense flamed in censers of gold; and golden chalices and vafes bore the honey, the oil, the wine, and the fruits, offered at their blameless sacrifice. I have already mentioned the temple of the Sun, or rather of Auruna, the day-star, defcribed by Philostratus, whose lofty walls of porphyry were internally covered with broad plates of gold, sculptured in rays, that, diverging every way, dazzled the beholder, while the radiant image of the adored deity burned, in gems of infinite variety and unequalled beauty, on the spangled floor. The floor also, of the great temple of Naugracut, in the northern mountains, even fo late in time as the visit of Mandelloe, we have seen, was covered with plates of gold; and thus the Hindoo, in his purer devotion, trampled upon the god of half mankind. In the processions also, made in honour of their idols, the dimost magnificence prevailed ; they then brought forth all the wealth of the temple, and every order of people itrove to outvie each other iz displaying their rịches and adding to the pomp. -The elephants march. ed first, richly decorated with gold and silver ornaments, studded with precious stones; chariots, overlaid with those metals, and loaded with them in ingots, advanced next ; then followed the sacred steers, cou. pled together with yokes of gold, and a train of the nobleft and mot beautitul bearts of the forest, by nature fierce and sanguinary, but rendered mild and tractable by the skill of man; an immense multitude of priests carrying vessels, plates, dishes, and other utentiis, all of gold, adorned with diamonds, rubies, and fapphires, for the sumptuous feat of which the gods were to partake, brought up the reart. During ak this time the air was rent with the sound of various instruments, maka tial and festive; and the dancing girls displayed, in their sumptuous apparel, the wealth of whole provinces exhausted to decorate beauty devoted to religion." P. 497.

Having given the above specimens from the lighter and more entertaining portion of the volume, and willing, before we take our final leave of the work, to do effential justice to the

or * Philoftrat. lib. Ü. cap. 11.

+ Strabo, lib, xv. p. 710."

laborious researches of the author, on thofe abftrufer fubjects that yet remain for consideration, we thall, in this instance, deviate from our general custom, in regard to volumes in an octavo form, and allot to a second arricle the detail of some circumstances connected with literature and jurisprudence, not a little curious in their nature, nor wholly unimportant in their consequences. While our Gallic rivals in arins and literature are still using their molt asliduous endeavours, for the worst of purposes, to subvert the established chronology of the Christian world, let us not treat with neglect, or indifference, literary efforts of a directly contrary tendency, in which the utmost latitude is allowed to the exertion of human genius, in periods at all conlistent with the most enlarged limits of the Mosaic computation of the earth's existence, as an habitable planet ; in which arts and sciences are traced back 10 their aniediluvian origin; and the laws and traditions prevalent among the primeval race, are truly represented as sometimes faintly glimmering, and at others beaming forth with irresistible fplendour, amidst the obfcurity of Asiatic codes, and the chaus of Oriental superstitions.

(To be concluded in our next.)

ART. IV. Practical Observations on the Use of Oxygen, or

Vital Air, in the Cure of Diseases : to which are added, a few Experiments on the Vegetation of Plants. By D. Hill, Feilow and One of the Council of the London Medical Society, and Homorary Member of the Medical Society at Guy's Hospital.

410. 58 pp. 75. 6. Rivingtons. i800. THIS HIS author had long been employed, he says, in examining

the properties of gaseous fluids, and their effects on the human constitution, and had actually received considerable benefit, from using them in his own person, before he ventured to administer them to his patients. A great number of trials fince made, in a variety of diseases, particularly in those arising from debility, or want of energy in the conititution, and made, almost constantly, with advantage to the patients, induce him now to offer the result of his observations and experience to the public. The cases of nineteen parients are relaied, which form a small part only of the persons who have been relieved,

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BRIT. CRIT, VOL. XVII, FEB. 1801.

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or cured, by inhaling the oxygen gas, under the author's día rection. The diseases with which they were affected, were epilepsy, palsy, scrofula, rickets, and some anomalous complaints. From these we fhall select a case of hydrocephalus, as being a disorder of frequent occurrence, and hitherto deemed incurable by medicine.

Case of Hydrocephalus, in the Child of William Bennet, late of Bera

ner's Mews, now No. 26, Devonshire-place Mews. “ This was a strong healthy child, till fix months old, when he was seized with the fmall.pox in the natural way. The epileptic fit, common to young children previous to the eruptive fever, lasted three quare ters of an hour, accompanied with strong convulsive ftruggles, and much seeming pain and uneasiness in the head. The morning after this fit the imall pox appeared. With common nursing, during the sea veral stages of the discase, the mother, to a certain degree, recovered the child; but as it often happens that, without proper medical aid, the constitution is much impaired, so it was in this child; for, when the eruption was gone, the habit was very much exhausted, a great heaviness affected it, and there was a considerable inflammation in the white part of the eye, where a pustule had been.

• The child was taken in this face to the Small-pox Hospital. Mr. Wachfel, the attendant apothecary, very judicioufly ordered leeches 10 be applied to the temples, and several doses of physic, which soon recovered the eye. Shortly afrerwards, however, the child began to appear more dull and heavy; his head gradually. enlarged; the futures, which had been united except the two fontanels, were beginning to lose their bony union; and his lower extremities were so unable to support his body, that every attempt to move him gave him great pain.

“ He was now taken a second time to the hospital. Mr. W. immediately discovered, that the enlargement of the head proceeded from water lodged within it, and apprised the child's mother of its fatal consequences. He notwithstanding advised more doses of phyfic, and some tonic remedy. The opening medicines gave him relief for a few days; but after that lymptoms of oppreflion returned with great violence, when the farme remedies were repeated, but with no good effect. The head being now wonderfully increased in size, in coolequence of the weight and pressure of the water on the brain, the paLalysis of all the extremitics was complete.

ir The child was brought to me in May, 1796, then seventeen months old. On examining its head, I found the tagittal future, commencing from the nasal process, or bones of the nole, and extending through the os frontis, or frontal bone, open to the full extent of hait an inch. The other sutures, connecting the several bones of the head, were in the farne proportion open, and expanded from their natural bony union into a wide membranons one, under which water was felt to fluctuate very readily. On any kind of pressure a convulsive motion of the body followed. His pulse was weak, and beat near a hun, dred in a minute; and all his lower extremities were periectly fabby, and motionless,

'or This

* This deplorable case, on being presented to my view, appeared 10 me one of the most incurable diseafes to which the human frame could be subject ; and from its extent far more threatening than any I had ever met with during my practice. The child's coral incap:city to inhale, even if vital air could act as a remedy, was the first difficulty I had to encounter. I therefore contrived to apply a tube to the body of my apparatus, closed the child's noftrils with my finger and thumh, made it cry, and, as often as it took a deep inspiration, forced the vitål air from the apparatus into the lungs. This method succeede ? completely; for warmth in the extremities was iminediately felt, with a firmer pulfe, and soft skin. The succeeding night he Nept with much more composure than he had done for many months, and his mother observed that he made an unusual quantity of water.

“ From continuing the fame dole of two parts of pure vital air to twenty of common air daily, in the course of a week he was evidently stronger, more lively, and his bowels, which from the general paralytic torpor had been disposed to great coitiveness, were become quite regular. As the action of she air by this time had produced a while tongue, I ordered a dose of rhubarb and fal polychreit, to clear the bowels gradually, by repeating it at Hort intervals. This soon cleared the tongue; the child ate a great deal heartier, and improved very much in appearance; the membranes foon became flaccid ; and, as the water gradually leflened, new bfic marier gradually cloled the sufure in the frontal bone. In a month the whole of the fucures, except the two fontanels, were again united by a firm bony union. The head being reduced nearly to its natural fire, on the cause of its enJargement being gradually removed, the pally of the lower extremities recovered. Tonic remedies were now ordered, so that by the middle of October he could stand, and walk alone; and to so great a degree did the vital air renovate this poor little being, that he cut eight new teeth. This farther effort of nature appeared to be the only reason, why he did not recover the entire use of the lower extremitiés fooner. Since his recovery, this child has had his thigh fractured : but his conftitution has surmounted this accident, though he is rendered somewhat lame, by the injured limb being shorter than the other.

Obfervations on : he preceding Cafe. • Vital air thus mechanically applied with the happiest effects, in the last stage of this fatal disease, a disease too becoming more prevalent among children, with the phenomena of its thus imparting life to the blood, and exciting strong action in the heart and arteries, cannot fail to claim much attention, and give confidence in future practice. In the next place it promoted an increase of all the secretions, by the skin, kidneys, and bowels. To these effects succeeded the restoration of natural fleep, the subsequent absorption of the water covering the brain, the renovation of the offific process in uniting the various futures of the skull, and lally the removal of all the paralytic affections of the arms, legs, and bowels.” P. 14.

Oxygen is exhibited with most advantage, the author saysa to young fubjects, as it aslists in developing the parts, and aids their growth; next to them, to persoas from the age of pu.

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