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fern-roots. Occasionally they took the trouble to break boughs of frees into short pieces, to feed the fire, taking care to choose the drieft. From their manner of breaking them, we found that their skulls must be very hard; for, taking hold of the sticks at each end with the hand, they bent them over their heads, as we do at the knee, till they broke. Their heads being constantly bare, and often exposed to all weathers, in this high latitude, acquire a capacity of resisting such efforts: besides, their hair forms a cushion, which diminishes the pref. sure, and renders it much less painful on the summit of the head, than on any other part of the body. Few of the women, however, could have done as much; for some had their hair cut pretty short, and wore a string several times round the head, others had only a simple crown of hair. We made the same observation with respect to several of the children, but none of the men. These had the back, breast, shoulders, and arms, cover d with downy hair.
"Two of the ftovrest of the party were fitting in the midst of their children, and each had two women by his side. They informed us by signs, that these were their wives, and gave us a fresh proof that polygamy is established among them. The other women, who had only one husband, were equally careful to let us know it. It would be difficult to say which aie the happieft; as the most laborious of their domeftic occupations devolve upon them, the foriner had the advantage of a partner in them, which perhaps might sufficiently compensate their having only a share in their husband's affections.
“ Their meal had continued a long time, and we were much fure prized that not one of them had yet drank; but this they deferred, till they were fully satisfied with eating. The women and girls then went to fetch water with the vessels of sea-werd, of which I have already spoken, getting it at the first place they came to, and setting down by the men, who drank it without ceremony, though it was very muddy and stagnant. Then they finished their repast.
“ When we returned towards Port Dentrecasteux, most of the favages accompanied us; and before they left us, they gave us to understand, chat, in two days, by proceeding along the shore, they shoold be very near our ships. To inform us that they mould make this journey in two days, they pointed out with their hands the diurnal motion of the fun, and expressed the number two by as many of their fingers.
" When we re-embarked to go on board, these good people followed us with their eyes for some time, before they left the shore, and then they disappeared in the woods. Their way brought them at times to the shore again, of which we were immediately informed by the cries of joy, with which they made the air resound. These testimonies of pleasure did not cease, till we loft fighi of them from the distance.
" During the whole time we spent with them, nothing appeared to indicate that they had any chiefs. Each family, on the contrary, seemed to us to live in perfect independence ; though we observed in the children the greatek subordination to their parents, and in the wo, men the fanie to their husbands. It appeared, that the women were careful to avoid giving their hofbands any occasion for jealousy: though, when we returned on board, one of the crew boasted of the lavours he had received from one of the beauties of Cape Diemen ;
but it is difficult to say how far his story was founded on truth."> P. 312.
A second time the voyagers passed through D'Entrecasteaux's Sirait, anchored in Advebiure Bay, proceeded to the northward of New Zealaod, and came to Tongataboo, one of the Friendly Illands. The manners of the people there are well described ; but these are now familiar to every reader. Leaving Tongataboo, they discovered a new island on their way to New Caledonia, to which they gave the name of Ille de Beaupre. They describe the natives of New Caledonia as remarkably bold and daring, and as cannibals. One of their articles of food is a new species of spider.
Leaving New Caledonia, they proceeded in a northerly di. redion til they came to Santa Cruz, or Egmont Itland, which place, with its inhabitants, is described. Having explored a part of Solomon's Archipelago, the north coast of La Louisiade, they passed through Dampier's Strait, to examine the north coast of New Britain. Here they lost their Admiral. Hence again proceeding to Waygiou, an island near Pirt's Sırait, they finally came to Batavia. At this place they were detained on account of the war; and, melancholy to tell, lost the greater part of their crews. The survivors were variously dispersed, and it is greatly to be feared, that but a very few ever have fourd their way back again to their native country.
Thus ended this disastrous enterprise; honourable indeed to both countries, but particularly to this; by whose generosity the papers and collections of the Voyage were communicated to France. It will litike every observer, as no creditable feature in the present national character of our adversaries, that the naturalists and men of science who accompanied the expedition, were, on all occasions, treated with the most marked
negligence and contempt. They were denied the comforts, • and often the necessaries which the rest of the crew had in
common. With respect to the translations before us, boih are undoubtedly entitled to praise. That published for Stockdale appears, on ihe whole, to be the belt , while, on the other hand, the chart and plates which accompany Debreti's publicae tion, are superior to those in the other work. We think, however, that the Voyage itself does not much increase our stores of knowledge ; nor, except in that part which describes the manners of Amboyna, does ii afford any great degree of pptertainment.
Art. III. Indian Antiquities: or, Differtations, relative to te 1: Meent se griphical Divisions, the pure System of primeval Tisend ry, the grand Code of Civil Laws, the original Form of Guirnme:i, the wiilciy-extended Commerce, and the vala r1015 and profound Literature, of Hindistan : compared, thrughout, with the Religion, Lau's, Government, and Litiroiure, of Persia, Egypt, and Greece. The while intended as Introductor y to, and Illustrative of the Hijiory of Hind fian, upon a comprehensive Scale. Volume I'll. and Final. 8vo.
gs. White. 1800. THROUGHOUT the whole of this extensive investiga.. tioo into the antiquities of India, and of the great empires of Alia connected with it, we have uniformly endea. voured 10 do justice to the views and plan of the author in undertaking it; and a regular and correct analylis, as well of bis Indian History, as of the prefent work, will be found in our preceding volumes. We appland the industry and perfeverance that have enabled him to complee tem ; and it is no fmail gratification to us, to find the voice of public approbalion so decidedly sanctioning the opinion, which, at the very commencement of our labours, we ventured to give concerning the utility, and, indeed, the nccellily of such a publication, in times like the present, to connieract those principles, which it is the constant end-avour of infidelity to fund upon perverted representations of eastern hiftory and mythology.
To fill up the ouvines which Mr. Maurice had sketched for the conduct of this now voluminous work, a differtation on the literature, and the arts and friences anciently flourishing in India, and another on the jurisprudence of that country, were wanting. With there, and with another curious dilleriation on the teasures in bullion and coined munev, a maild in the ancient world, the public are here prefented; and Mr. M.'s own account of the plan purfoed by him in drículug those subjects, will perhaps be the best introduciion the reader can have to the frieures cousained in the volume. It is desicated 10 two gendemen, who fand defervedly high in ihe line of their profellion, Mr. Pluiner and Mr. Dallas, to whom the author acknowledges to have been urder con Giderable obligations at his entrance Upur: the field of Oriental literature. In apology for engaging at all in legal dijculjiin, Mr:M. urges, that a Differation on Indian fursprudence formed a part of his original proposals, published long before Sir William Jones had favoured the learned
world with the translasjon of Menu's Iofitutes, which is now. in the hands of minit proteifional men.
• Though that circumstance," he adds. “ has enabled me grearly to curtail my disquisitions on that curious head of Indian literature, yer it by no means releases me from the obligation I am under to the general class of my readers, who may not be in poffeilion of the work in question. The concile obiervations which I have ventured to offer on the legislatue of India and thar fingular code, composed of such heterogeneous ingredients, that jargon (tor so I must call it) of defpo. tism to men and benevolence to brutes, of sense and absurdity, of the sublime and the puerile, are the result of confiderable attention to the subject, founded partly on what I have been able to collect from ancient clasical writers, and partly from the few genuine Hindoo documents as yet in our poliellion,"
Mr. M. then proceeds to explain himself on the other 102 pics discussed in this curious tinal volume of his Antiquities, and closes the Dedication in the following manner: .
« The legal Disertation, though the lift in order of those that océ cupy the pages of this final volume, I have introduced first and cre particularly io your notice, Gentlemen, becanfe it is the one io adichi you will probably find yourselves si ofi intercited. It contains two others, intimately connected with Indian commerce and literature, to which I beg permiflion to make these dedicat ry pages somewhat introductory.
" When the Arabian chie's, in the seventh century of the Chriftian æra, poured their myriads into the plains of Hindoitan, they found there such furerabundant wealth, the tribute of all rations for innume: rablc ages, as occasioned the wrirers of that country to invent the romantic fiction that, among ot! er raricies peculiar to ludia, a tree was discovered there of pure gold", and of enormous size, springing nas turally out of the foil, thus realizing Milton's table of the vegetable gold that grew in the delightful paradise of his fancy. According to writers, however, hereafter referred to, of somewhat better authenticity than those fablers, nothing could equal, in the ancient periods that preceded their irruption, the altonishing magnificence displayed in the pagodas. The lofty roofs and columns of those flupendous edifices are reported to have been entirely covered with that beautiful metal; the high-raised altars blazed with a profusion of gems; the breasts and veltures of veir monftrcus idols were covered with strings of the lovelieft pearl, while their eyes (parkled with the borrowed suitre of eineralds and rubies. I thought it could not fail of being peculiarly interesting to that very large and respec able portion of my readers who are commercially connected with India, to trace to their fource, in the vast, but now probably exhausted, mincs of Africa and Afa, the
streams of that amazing wealth, by way of appendix to the Differtaition on the ancient commerce of India in the sixth volume of these
or * See Orme's Hindostan, vol. i. p. 9,"
Antiquities. The picture, it must be owned, is extremely gaudy and magnificent, but I trust it is not overcharged.
• The arts and sciences of India, which I have considered under the general head of its literature, were carried, in periods of the most zeinote antiquity, to so high a point of excellence as opens to the European scholar an immense field for reflection. In this inftance also I have endeavoured to do the ancient Indians strict justice with-out exaggeration; but, on some points principally relating to their
nyaralleled advance in mechanical science, considerable difficulties arising, and there being such a deficiency of written materials in Europe for proving the points contended for; to subitantiate those poinis I have had recourse to the following plan of investigation and deci. kon, in which, if my author Sir William Jones was, as I have every Kason to think, correct in his original positions, I could scarcely fail of being also correct in my deductions.
“ By a train of forcible arguinenis, strengthened by an ingenious astronomical calculation, that equally zealous and judicious explorer into the genuine antiquities of Alia has fixed the period of the first promulgation of Menu's Institutes to chat of the establishment of the first monarchies in Egypt and Asia, which could not have taken place many ages posterior to the deluge; and their first publication, as a code of written laws, to about the year 1280 before Christ. Now, when we read in tkat code of the engraving and piercing of gemis, and particularly of diamonds, an art only recently known in Europe, we know they muứ necessarily have had the use of those fine steel inftruments without which that operation could not possibly have been performed, and consequently that they must have been very excellent metallurgilts as early after the deluge as can well be conceived. Again, when, in the same book, we read of a particular cafi, or class, whose fole occupation it is to attend alk-wvorms, we can ascertain, however disputed in favour of the Chinese at a later date, the very early period when filk-weaving flourished in India. To the same decifion we are irresistibly led in respect to the art of making pottery and porce, lain, which induced me to conclude that the ancient Murrhins were : . not crystal or agate, but a fine kind of porcelain, and I rejoice to find that so good a judge of the subject as Dr. Vincent confirms the fact contended for*. A variety of similar proofs may be brought of their having been, in those ancient periods, good cheinifts, astronomers, architeets, geometricians, and even anatomists, an assertion fo often and strenuoully denied; and, for these proofs, I refer the reader to the parts of the Differtation that relate to those facts. .
" Such, Gentlemen, is the species of entertainment which I have endeavoured gratefully to provide for yourselves and the indulgent public in the present yolume of Indian Antiquities; and, while I take à final adieu of a subject that has engrossed some years of my life, moft servently do I hope that my humble essays may only be the forerunner
* An ingenious Frenchman, however, in the Mem. de l'Instit. Literature, tom. ii. p. 133, contends, and seems to prove, that it was a species of Chalcedony, called in French Girafl, os cacholing. Rev.