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ment, agreealle to said directions; and I do hereby vest them with full and ample powers for that purpose. And having considered that the covering its ground plat with buildings and pavements, which carry off' most rain, and prevent its soaking into the earth, and renewing and purifying the springs, whence the water of the wells must gradually grow worse, and in time be unfit for use, as I find has happened in all old cities; I recomniend, that, at the end of the first hundred years, if not done before, the corporation of the city employ a part of the hundred thousand pounds in bringing by pipes the water of the Wissahicon-creek into the town, so as 10 supply the inhabitants, which I apprehend may be done without great difficulty the level of this creek being much above that of the city, and may be made higher by a dam. I also recommend making the Schuylkill completely navigable. At the end of the second hundred years, I would have the disposition of the four millions and sixty-one thousand pounds divided between the inhabitants of-the city of Philadelphia and the government of Pennsylvania, in the same manner as herein directed with respect to that of the inhabitants of Boston and the government of Mas. sachiusetts. It is my desire that this institution should take place, and begin to operate within one year after my decease: for which purpose due notice should be publicly given, previous to the expiration of that year, that those for whose benefit this esta. blishment is intended may make their respective ap. plications: and I hereby direct my executors, the survivors and survivor of them, within six months after my decease, to pay over the said sum of two thousand pounds sterling to such persons as shall be duly appointed by the select men of Boston, and the corporation of Philadelphia, and to receive and take charge of their respective' sums of one thousand pounds each for the purposes aforesaid Considering the accidents to which all human affairs and projects are subject in such a length of time, I have perhaps too much flattered myself with a vain fancy, that these dispositions, if carried into execution, will be continued without interruption, and have the ef

fects proposed : I hope, however, that if the inhabi. tants of the two cities should not think fit to undertake the execution, they will at least accept the offer of these donations, as a mark of my good will, token of my gratitude, and testimony of my desire to be useful to them even after my departure. I wish, indeed that they may both undertake to endeavour the execution of my project, because I think, that, though unforseen difficulties may arise, expedients will be found to remove them, and the scheme be found practicable. If one of them accepts the money with the conditions, and the other refuses, my will then is, that both sums be given to the inhabitants of the city accepting ; the whole to be applied to the same purposes, and under the same regulations directed for ihe separate parts; and if both refuse, the money remains of course in the mass of my estate, and it is to be disposed of therewith, according to my will made the seventeenth day of July, 1788.

My fine crab-tree walking-stick, with a gold head curiously wrought in the form of the Cap of Liberty, I give to my friend, and the friend of mankind, General Washington. If it were a sceptre, he has merited it, and would become it.

5.

ESSAYS
HUMOROUS, MORAL, AND

LITER IRY.

ON EARLY MARRIAGES.

To John Alleyn, Esq.

DEAR JACK, You desire you say, my impartial thoughts on the subject of an early marriage, by way of answer to the nuinberless objections that have been made by numerous persons to your own. You may remember, when you consulted ine on the occasion, that I thought youth on both sides to be no objection. Indeed, from ihe marriages that have fallen under my observatioir, I am rather inclined to think, that early ones stand the best chance of happiness. The temper and habits of the young are not yet become so stiff and uncomplying, as wlien more advanced in life ; they form inore easily to each other, and hence, many occasions of disgnist are removed. And if youth has less of that prudence which is necessary to manage a family, yet the parents and elder friends of young married persons are generally at hand to afford their advice, which amply supplies that defect; and, by early mr. riage, youth is sooner formed to regular and useful life ; and possibly some of those accidents, or connexions, that might have injured the constitution, or reputation, or both, are thereby happily prevented. Particular circumstances of particular persons, may possibly sometimes make it prudent to delay entering into that state ; but, in general, when nature las ren dered our bodies fit for it, the presumption is in na. (ure's favour, that she bas not judged amniss in inak. ing us desire it. Late marriages are often attended, 100, with this further inconvenience, that there is not the same chance that the parents should live to see their offspring educateil. Lale children," says the Spanish proverb, are early orphans.” A melancholy reflection to those whose case it may be! With - us in America, marriages are generally in the morning of life; our children are therefore educated and seitled in the world by noon ; and thus, our business being done, we bave an afternoon and evening of cheerful leisure to ourselves, such as our friend ai present ənjoys. By these early marriages we are blessed with more children and from the mode among us, founded by nature, of every mother suckling, and nursing her own child, more of them are raised. Thence the swist progress of population among us, unparalleled in Europe. in fine, I am glad you are married, and congratulate you most cordially upon it. You are now in the way of becoming a useful citizen; and you have escaped the unnatural state of celibacy for life-the fate of many here, who never intended it, but who having too long postponed the change of their conditions, find, at length, that it is too late to think of it, iind so live all their lives in a situation that greatly lessens a man's value. An odd volume of a set of books, bears not the value of its proportion to the set; what think you of the odd half of a pair of scissors; it can't well cut any thing; it may possibly serve to scrape a trencher.

Pray make my compliments and best wishes acceptable to your bride. I am old and heavy, or should ere this have presented them in person. I shall make but small use of the old man's privilege, that of giving advice to younger friends. Treat your wife always with respect, it will procure respect to you, not only from her, but from all that observe it. Never use a slighting expression to her, even in jest : Tor slights in jest, after frequent bandyings, are apt to end in angry earnest. Be studious in your profession, and you will be learned. Be industrious ani frugal, and you will be rich. Be sober and temperate, and you will be benlthy) Be in general'virtu

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ous, and you will be happy. At least, you will, ly such conduct, stand the best chance for such con. sequences I pray God to bless you both! being rver your affectionate friend,

B. FRANKLIN.

ON THE DEATH OF HIS BROTHER,

MR. JOHN FRANKLIN.

TO MISS HUBBARD.

I CONDOLE with you. We have lost a most dear and valuable relation. But it is the will of God and nature, that these mortal bodies be laid aside, when the soul is to enter into real life. This is rather an embryo state, a preparation for living. A man is not completely born until he be dead. Why then should we grieve that a new child is born among the immortals, a new member added to their happy society! We are spirits. That bodies should be lent us, while they can afford us pleasures, assist us in acquiring knowledge, or doing good to our fellow creatures, is a kini and benevolent act of God. When they become unfit for these purposes, and afford us pain instead of pleasure, instead of an aid becomes an incumbrance, and answer none of the intentions for which they were given, it is equally kind and bene. volent that a way is provided by which we may get rid of them. Death is that way. We ourselves, in some cases, prudently choose a partial death. A mangled painful limb), which cannot be restored, we willingly cut off. He who plucks out a tooth, parts with it freely, since the pain goes with it: and ne who quits the whole body, parts at once with all pains, and possibilities of pains and diseases, it was liable to, or capable of making bim suffer.

Our friend and we are invited abroad on a party of pleasure, which is to last for ever. His chair was ready first: and he is gone before us. We conld not all conveniently start together; and why should you

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