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shhere men, the water, in was

plain, was singular and striking. The sun rose shortly before we arrived at the brink of the river. There men, women, and children stripped, and plunged into the water. Many employed themselves, while in the river, in washing and thus sanctifying the linen which they destined for their graveclothes. The Jordan, at the spot where the pilgrims bathed, is beautifully picturesque. Its breadth may be about twenty yards; and it is shaded, on both sides, by the thick foliage of closely-planted trees. The water appeared turbid, and was not deep.-Some Turkish horsemen dashed through the river, and rode to and fro, in the grove on the opposite side, to protect the pilgrims from the guns of the Bedouins, many of whom were assembled to watch the ceremony. On retiring from the water, the pilgrims employed themselves in cutting branches from the trees, to carry home with them as memorials of the Jordan. They then mounted their beasts, and returned to their former station on the plain. Our party set off from the Jordan, with Prince Avaloff (a Georgian) and his suite, to the Dead Sea, where we arrived in about two hours and a half. We rambled about, for some time, on the borders of this lake, which covers the ashes of Sodom and Gomorrah. I tasted the water, and found it excessively nauseous. Some of the party bathed. On our return, we traversed the fertile part of the plain passed through the village of Jericho --and returned to our tents about noon. Most of the pilgrims had already started for Jerusalem. After taking a slight refreshment, we returned to the city by the same way that we had come, and entered by the gate of St. Stephen.

31.-EASTER MONDAY. Every day in this week was formerly observed as a religious festival, sermons being preached, and the sacrament administered. It is unnecessary to observe that this practice has long ceased, and that the Eas

ter week is usually devoted to relaxation and amusement. — An account of some curious practices on these days, in different parts of England, will be found in our last volune, pp. 107-108. ..

In Somersetshire, a barbarous sport was till lately, and now is, we believe, occasionally practised on this day, and on Easter Tuesday. It was called cock-squailing, and consisted in tying a cock to a stake, and throwing sticks at him from a given distance, so as to destroy the bird. We merely mention this game in order to deprecate it. To squail, therefore, means, in the Somerset dialect, to fling a stick at a cock or other animal. [J.)

Astronomical Occurrences

: In MARCH 1823.

SOLAR PHENOMENA. THE SUN enters Aries at 49 m. after 9 in the morning of the 21st of this month, and this introduces SPRING, 'the earliest and fairest daughter of the year;' the import of whose presence is, 'Lo! the winter is past, the rain is over and gone, the flowers appear on the earth, the time of the singing of birds

is come, and the voice of the turtle is heard in our i land; the fig-tree putteth forth her green figs, and the

vines with the tender grapes give us good smell. Arise, and come away! The Sun also rises and sets, during this period, as in the following

: ovu . TABLE
Of the Sun's Rising and Setting for every fifth Day.
March 1st, Sun rises 36 m. after 6. Sets 24 m. past 5

6th, ...... ... 25 .......... 6 ....... 35 .......... 5
11th, ............
16th. ............. 6 .......... 6 ....... 54 ......... 5
21st, ............. 56 ....... no 5 ....... 4 ....... 6
26th, .... .10... 46 ... ... 5 ....... 14 .......... 6
3lst. ... ... 36............ 5 ....... 24 ......... 6

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21st,

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Equation of Time. · When apparent time, or that indicated by a good sun-dial, is known, mean time is found by adding to it the numbers in the following

TABLE
Of the Equation of Time for every fifth Day.
Saturday, March 1st, to the time by the dial add
Thursday, ....... 6th, ....
Tuesday, ......... 11th, ...
Sunday, ............. 16th,
Friday, .............
Wednesday, ..... 26th, ........
Monday, ......... 31st,

LUNAR PHENOMENA.

Phases of the Moon.
Last Quarter, 4th day, at 48 m. after 6 in the erening
New Moon, ... 12th ......... 34 .......... 6 .....................
First Quarter, 19th ......... 18 ...........
Full Moon, ... 26th ......... 41 ........... 5 .....................

Moon's Passage over the Meridian. As exercises for our young readers, we have selected the following from the Moon's transits this month, which will afford them opportunities of observation, if the weather be favourable: March 4th, at 19 m. after 5 in the morning

5th, ... 10 .... 6 ....................
6th, ... 1

7 .....................
7th, ... 51.

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200

8th, ... 19th,

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8

...................

5 in the afternoon
20th,
21st, ... 57 17 in the evening
22d, ... 52
230, ... 43

9 ....................
24th, ... 32

10 .................... 25th, ... 19 .......... 11 ...................... PHENOMENA PLANETARUM.

Phases of Venus. · Nearly the whole disk of this beautiful planet is still enlightened by the solar beams, as the following is the proportion of her phases: .. March 1st. { Illuminated part = 11:50306 digits

og Dark part......... = 0.49694

Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites. Though there will be numerous eclipses of the first and second satellites this month, only three of each will be visible in the neighbourhood of London; and the following are the times at which they will take place at the Royal Observatory: viz.

Emersions.
First Satellite, 4th day, at 47 m. 48 s. past 10 at night

20th ......... 38 25 ......... 8 ............

27th ......... 34 13 ......... 10 ............ Second Satellite, 3d ......... 7 18 ......... 9 .............

Immersions. Second Satellite, 3d day, at 32 m. 4s. after 6 in the evening

10th ......... 7 56 ......... 9 at night

TABLE
Of the Meridional Transits and Altitudes of the

Planets.
1st 7th 13th 19th 25th

TRANSITS,
h. m.
h. m.
h. m.

h, m. :-, Mercury 10 47 mor. 10 23 10 23 10 18 10 20

10 25 Venus 1 2 aft. 17 1 12 1 17 1 23 Mars : 0 21 aft. 0 16 0.11

0 6

0 1 Jupiter 5 0 aft. 4 41 4 22 4 4 3 47 Saturn 3 30 aft. 3 10 2 50 2 31 2 12 G. Sidus 8 I mor. 739 7 18 6 57 6 34

ALTITUDES.
Mercury 26022

250 6
250 1' 260 0

27055
Venus 35 53
38 59 42 5 45 8

48 6 Mars 31 50 33 42 35 36

37 30 Jupiter 57 50

58 1 58 13 58 25 58 38 Saturn 49 53

50 5 50 18 50 32 50 45 G. Sidus 15 8

15 9 15 9 15 10 15 il

Other Phenomena. On the morning of the 4th, the Moon will be in conjunction with the bright star «, in Scorpio, at 27m. after 6. Mercury will also be stationary on the same day; and he will attain his greatest elongation on the 16th. The Moon will be in conjunction with Georgium Sidus at 29 m. after 2 in the morning of the 7th, and with Mercury at 39m. past 1 in the af. ternoon of the 10th. Mars will be in conjunction at 10 in the morning of the 25th; and the Moon will

39 24

again be seen to coincide in longitude with Q, in Scorpio, at 57 m. past 2 in the afternoon of the last day of this month.

The phenomena of the heavens have not only regulated the common affairs of life, but have been a constant theme with the poets from the remotest antiquity. Thus sang the Mantuan bard:

Give me the ways of wand'ring stars to know;
The depths of heay'n above, and earth below.
Teach me the various labours of the Moon,
And whence proceed eclipses of the Sun;
Why flowing tides prevail upon the main,
And in what dark recess they shrink again;
What shakes the solid earth; what cause delays
The summer nights, and shortens winter days.

VIRGIL'S GEORGICS.
DESCRIPTION AND USE OF ASTRONOMICAL

INSTRUMENTS.

(Continued from p. 49.) The RetICULE, or Cross WIRES. This is a simple contrivance, by which the number of observations is multiplied, and the accuracy of the result greatly increased. To explain its nature and effects, let ABDE (in Fig.1) represent a section of the telescopic tube, perpendicular to its axis, or of the diaphragm with which the tube is often supplied to prevent the reflection of the oblique rays. Fig. 1.

Fig. 2. ju

sr

DY

A fine wire, DF, is attached to the edges of this ring by means of two small screws, and passes through the centre C. When the telescope is placed in the meridian, this is called the horizontal wire, and per

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