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prancing black chargers, who rode forward to clear the way, accompanied by such a flourish of trumpets and kettle-drums, that it looked at first like any thing but a peaceable or religious proceeding. This martial array was followed by a bareheaded priest, on a white mule, bearing the Host in a gold cup, at the sight of which every body fell upon their knees. The Pope used formerly to ride upon the white mule himself, and all the cardinals used to follow him in their magnificent robes of state, mounted either on mules or horses; and as the Eminentissimi' are, for the most part, not very eminent horsemen, they were generally fastened on, lest they should tumble off. This cavalcade must have been a very entertaining sight. Pius VI, who was a very handsome man, kept up this custom, but the present Pope is far too infirm for such an enterprise ; so he followed the man on the white mule, in his state coach; at the very sight of which, we seemed to have made a jump back of two hundred years at least. It was a huge machine, composed almost entirely of plate-glass, fised in a ponderous carved and gilt frame, through which was distinctly visible the person of the venerable old Pope, dressed in robes of white and silver, and instantly giving his benediction to the people, by a twirl of three fingers; which are typical of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; the last being represented by the little finger.
. On the gilded back of this vehicle, the only part that was not made of glass, was a picture of the Pope in his chair of state, and the Virgin Mary at his feet. This extraordinary machine was drawn by six black horses, with superb harness of crimson, velvet and gold; the coachmen, or rather postillions, were dressed in coats of silver stuff, with crimson velvet breeches, and full bottomed wigs well pow
Eminentissimo is the title by which a cardinal is addressed in conversation.
dered, without hats. Three coaches, scarcely less antiquely superb, followed with the assistant cardinals, and the rest of the train. In the inside of the church, the usual tiresome ceremonies went on that take place when the Pope is present. He is seated on a throne, or chair of state; the cardinals, in succession, approach and kiss his hand, retire one step, and make three bows or nods, one to him in front, and one on the right hand, and another on the left; which are intended for him (as the personification of the Father), and for the Son, and for the Holy Ghost, on either side of him; and all the cardinals having gone through these motions, and the inferior priests having kissed his toe—that is, the cross embroidered on his shoe-high mass begins. The Pope kneels during the elevation of the Host, prays in silence before the high altar, gets up and sits down, reads something out of a great book which they bring to him with a lighted taper held beside it; and, having gone through many more such ceremonies, finally ends as he began, with giving his benediction with three fingers, all the way he goes out. During all the time of this high mass, the Pope's military band, stationed on the platform in front of the church, played so many clamorous martial airs, that it effectually put to flight any ideas of religious solemnity.
"The Pope on this day gives to a certain number of young women a marriage portion of fifty crowns, or sometimes more. Such of them as choose to become the spouse of heaven, carry it to a convent, in which case it is always a larger sum. We expected to bave seen them walk in the procession, but it seems the practice has fallen into disuse, and they did not appear. Formerly, the Pope used to portion from one to two hundred young girls, but now that his finances are reduced, the number is necessarily more limited. We heard contradictory accounts of the numbers portioned to-day: the highest statement was between seventy and eighty.'
27.-MAUNDY THURSDAY. This day is called, in Latin, dies Mandati, the day of the command, being the day on which our Lord washed the feet of his disciples, as recorded in the second lesson. This practice was long kept up in the monasteries. After the ceremony, liberal donations were made to the poor, of clothing and of silver money; and refreshment was given them to mitigate the severity of the fast. A relic of this custom is still preserved in the donations dispensed at St. James's on this day.--See T.T. for 1821, pp. 96-98. The modern ceremonies at Rome are described in our last volume, pp. 91-94.
28.-GOOD FRIDAY. This day commemorates the sufferings of Christ, as a propitiation for our sins. Holy Friday, or the Friday in Holy Week, was its more antient and general appellation; the name Good Friday is peculiar to the English church. It was observed as a day of extraordinary devotion. Buns, with crosses upon them, are usually eaten in London and some other places on this day, at breakfast. A very curious account of the modern ceremonies, at Rome, with a particular description of the Illuminated Cross of St. Peter's, may be seen in our last volume, pp. 94-99.
The following superstitious penance (according to a modern traveller) is still performed on Good Friday, at Rome and in other Catholic places. The ceremony takes place at the time of vespers. It is preceded by a short exhortation, during which a bell rings; and whips, that is, strings of knotted whipcord, are distributed quietly among such of the audience as are on their knees in the middle of the nave. Those resting on the benches come to edify by example only. On a second bell, the candles are extinguished, and the former sermon having ceased, a loud voice issues from the altar, which pours forth an exhortation to think of unconfessed,
or unrepented, or unforgiven crimes. This continues a sufficient time to allow the kneelers to strip off their upper garments: the tone of the preacher is raised more loudly at every word, and he vehemently exhorts his hearers to recollect that Christ and the martyrs suffered much more than whipping - Show, then, your penitence-show your sense of Christ's sacrifice-show it with the whip.' The flagellation begins. The darkness, the tumultuous sound of blows in every direction - Blessed Virgin Mary, pray for us ! bursting out at intervals—the persuasion that you are surrounded by atrocious culprits and maniacs, who know of an absolution for every crime—the whole situation has the effect of witchery, and, so far from exciting a smile, fixes you to the spot in a trance of restless horror, prolonged beyond expectation or bearing. The scourging continues ten or fifteen minutes, and, when it sounds as if dying away, a bell rings, which seems to invigorate the penitents, for the lashes beat about more thickly than before. Another bell rings, and the blows subside. At a third signal, the candles are re-lighted, and the minister, who has distributed the disciplines, collects them again with the same discretion; for the performers, to do them justice, appear to be too much ashamed of their transgressions to make a show of their penance; so that it is very difficult to say whether even your next neighbour has given himself the lash or not.
The modern celebration (1820) of Good Friday at Jerusalem, is thus described in the Rev. J. Connor's interesting Journal before quoted. On Good Friday there was a grand procession and ceremony of the Latins, in the evening: it commenced with an Italian sermon, in the Catholic chapel, on the flagellation of Christ'. From this place they proceeded to the chapel where, they say, Christ's gar
. In their Chapel, the Catholics profess to show the pillar where this took place.
ments were taken from him: here was another sermon in Italian. They then ascended Mount Calvary ; and passed first into the chapel which marks the spot where Christ was nailed to the cross: the large crucifix and image which they carried in the procession was here laid on the ground, and a Spanish sermon was pronounced over it. When this was finished, the crucifix was raised, and moved into the adjoining chapel of the elevation of the cross: here it was fixed upright behind the altar: a monk, standing by, preached for twenty minutes on the crucifixion. The sermon was in Italian; and when it was concluded, two monks approached the cross, and, partially enveloping the body of the image in linen, took off, with a pair of pincers, the crown of thorns from the head, kissed it, and laid it on a plate: the nails were then drawn out from the hands and feet, with the same ceremony. The arms of the image were so contrived, that, on the removal of the nails which kept them extended, they dropped upon the sides of the body. The image was then laid on linen, and borne down from Calvary to the Stone of Unction, the spot where they say Christ's body was anointed: here the image was extended; and was perfumed with spices, fragrant water, and clouds of incense: the monks knelt round the stone, with large lighted candles in their hands: a monk ascended an adjoining pulpit, and preached a sermon in Arabic. The procession then went forward to the sepulchre, where the image was deposited, and a sermon preached in Spanish. This closed the ceremony.'-(Jowett's Researches, p. 434.)