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number. The pilchards thus prepared for a foreign market are called fumadoes. This was an appellation which they received in antient times, when they were cured by being smoked or fumed, in a manner somewhat similar to herrings in the present day. The name has survived, but the practice has been forgotten. - Pilchards that are caught early, and are fat, have generally been thought to yield one hogshead of oil from ten hosheads of fish. But it frequently happens that double this quantity will not yield more. The oil varies in price, from £20 to £28 per tun.The common price of pilchards may be estimated at about £2 2s. per hogshead. The skimmings which-float on the water in which the pilchards are washed when taken from the bulks, is called garbage, and is sold to the soap-boilers at fifteen-pence per gallon. The dregs which remain in the oil reservoir, are sold to the curriers at about sixteen-pence per gallon on an average.
Vi indi Few things are more precarious than the adventures in the pilchard fisheries. The first outfit of a seine, with its boats, bars, sails, ropes, nets, and a quantity of salt sufficient to cure 500 hogsheads of fish, if purchased new, cannot be estimated at less than £1000. On the southern coast; an average year of one seine may be estimated at 250 or 300 hogsheads; but it frequently happens that many seines scarcely take a single fish. In the year 1815, a seine at Charlestown caught only eight hogsheads during the season. The employment, however, which they furnish to boat-builders, rope-makers, coopers, to those who make the nets, to smiths, as well as masons and carpenters, who build cellars, ought not to be considered a matter of small importance. The manure which the land receives from broken fish and condemned salt, is also of considerable consequence to the agriculture of the county. And in addition to this, the resources which the poor find in those
annual supplies, cannot but place the pilchard fisheries in a serious and respectable light. They also form an excellent nursery for seamen; which is another valuable consideration for England, whose prosperity depends upon its naval power, and the extension of its commerce. Connecting together the multitudes who are actually employed in taking fish, the sailors who bring salt to the ports, they who carry the annual produce to the Mediterranean markets, and the collateral branches of trade which associate with each department, we behold many thousands of seamen, who are prepared for any emergency that may demand their aid.-(Hitchins's History of Cornwall.)
In this and the following month, POMONA with liberal hand offers her fruits to allay the parching thirst: currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, cherries, and cranberries, are all peculiarly refreshing at this season. The best varieties of these and the other English fruits are all figured in Mr. Brookshaw's Horticultural Repository, now in course of publication. The plates are beautifully coloured after Nature; and were it not rather too expensive a mode of saving our fruit from the attacks of the birds, they might be suspended at a short distance from the fruit trees, and they would probably possess the same merit as a picture of Apelles did', and serve to decoy the feathered marauders from the substance to the shadow. . Of the unpleasant thirst arising from the great heats sometimes experienced in this and the succeeding month, we spoke in our last volume (see p. 215), contrasting it with that felt by the travellers on the burning sands of Egypt,-and illustrating : our re
Apelles haying painted a picture of Alexander, the king did not express much satisfaction at the sight of it: at that moment, a horse passiug by, neighed at the horse represented in the piece, supposing it to be alive; upon which the painter said, One would imagine that the horse is a better judge of painting than your majesty: 0
marks with an interesting extract from Belzoni's travels, and a very pretty American poem called the * Bucket;'-in continuation of the subject, we cite the following passage from Dr. Richardson's Travels, which gives a vivid picture of the distress occasioned by the want of water, in travelling over the desert of Suez. : ! This had been (says our traveller) “a most fatiguing day's ride under a burning sirocco' wind from morning to night. We were afraid that the dreaded chamsin winds had set in; but our guide assured us, with the certainty of fate, that they would not commence for a fortnight. The poor pilgrims who were travelling with a small quantity of water, and anxious to husband it lest accident should detain us. longer in the desert than we expected, or who carried no flask along with them, and had kept up with us a great way a-head of the camels, came toiling up with parched lips, flushed face, and turgid eyes, ready to start from their sockets, and begged, if we had any water, to give them a little to cool their mouths. It was impossible to be deaf to such a request, however much we might wish to husband our store; and yet there was no cause for apprehension, for we had more than enough; but under the idea that it would fall short, even those of the party who might be considered as the best entitled to indulge, had we been on short allowance, obstinately held out, and though pressed, and really in want of it, denied themselves the gratification, lest a more, urgent period should arrive, when a drop of water would be called for as if to save a life. Often havo I seen the flask of water pushed away by the hand when I well knew the parched throat required its quenching aid. It was impossible to see and not to admire the feeling and spirit that dictated the resolution, or ever to forget the countenance that spoke the need of the beverage that the hand put by.
On our arrival at Gatsallakh we stopt in a low wind-swept valley, beside a precipitous sand-bank, that towered above our heads to the height of 100 feet. Here, however, we were told there was water, though, to our longing and inexperienced eyes, every inch of surface was covered with dry sand, without the slightest indication of the fluid below. Our flasks were all drained, and we alighted, and laid ourselves down on the sand, wishing for the arrival of our camels to bring us a fresh supply. Meanwhile, as we were admiring the operations of the industrious beetle rolls ing his ball over the smooth surface of the desert, the shiekh of the caravan began to clear away the arenaceous accumulation from a very unlikely spot, which, however, soon discovered signs of water beneath. He then proceeded to deepen the excavation by basketing out the sand, singing at the same time an appropriate Arab tune to these words; “ Allah a ma wil fater," and was answered in the same strain by the person who carried it away from him, “ El Moyé ta wil hater," which was interpreted to mean, “God, we give thee praise, and do thou give us water.” Thus they continued digging and sing. ing for about ten minutes, when abundance of the wished for fluid flowed amain. At the joyful sight, men, women, dogs, and asses, all crowded round, eager to dip their lips in the wave. It was handed round, basin after basin, as fast as they could be emptied and filled. We all drank of it, and thoughi it was muddy and brackish in the extreme, our first sentiment was that of universal approbation. " It is extremely good,” flowed from every tongue after it had tasted the 'water. We tried it a second time; but the voice of applause stuck in our throats, when the welcome sound of “ the camels are arrived," played upon our ears. On looking up, we saw them stretching their picturesque and graceful necks over the ridge of sand, and directing their march to à pleasant valley on the other side of the hill under which we were sitting. With the arrival of the caravan, fresh candidates for water came up to thë. well, to whom we gave place, and proceeded to the other side of the mound to superintend and assist in forming our encampment. The fires were immediately lighted, the beasts of burthen unloaded, the tents pitched, and in a short time a comfortable dinner and a good glass of wine consoled us for the fatigues of the day.
* As the shades of night closed in upon us, the light of our fires gleamed back in reflection from the banks of sand with which we were surrounded; and the members of each small party collected round their little hearth, smoking their pipes, drinking their coffee, and reposing after their fatigues, presented a tranquil and happy prospect, and seemed to the spectator, at a distance, as if we had encamped in a focus of light. Last night's meditation held them mute; they had just entered on a journey which might be attended with suffering, and had not advanced sufficiently far to enable them to talk of their fatigues, or the probability of themselves or their animals holding out to its termination. But the vigour that remained after this day's fatigue roused their confidence, and produced conversation. At an early hour the Mussulman retired to his prayers; the Christian pilgrims, having assembled together, sang hymns of thanksgiving and praise, and all gave themselves to rest. The desert is the spot in which man is all to his Maker and nothing to the world.'(Travels, vol. ii, p. 181.)
The angler is now busily engaged in his favourite pursuit;—but not so intensely occupied, we hope, as to be unable to steal a glance at the following Poetical CUYP:
The Moni FISHING.
Ran wheeling round beneath the mountain's shade,
On the near margin many a wat’ry glade,