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of clear ideas, and the acquisition of whatever can be truly called knowledge depends most materially on the possession of it:—if the best logic be that which teaches us to suspend our judgments;' and 'the art of seeing, so useful, so universal, and yet so uncommon, be one of the most valuable a man can possess,'—there can be no doubt of the judiciousness of their advice. Now, of all the branches of Natural History, Entomology is unquestionably the best fitted for thus disciplining the mind of youth; and simply from this circumstance, that its objects have life, are gifted with surprising instincts admirably calculated to attract youthful attention, and are to be met with every where. This study will also afford an excellent method of strengthening their habits of observation, attention, and memory, equal perhaps, in this respect, to any other mental exercise: they will likewise be provided in their old age with an object capable not merely of keeping off that tædium vitæ so often inseparable from the relinquishment of active life, but of supplying an unfailing fund of innocent amusement, an incentive to exercise, and consequently no mean degree of health and enjoyment.
It is not meant to undervalue the good effects of the study of Botany or Mineralogy: but it is selfevident that nothing inanimate can excite such interest in the mind of a young person as beings endowed with vitality, exercising their powers and faculties in so singular a way; which are not only alive themselves, but confer animation upon the leaves, fruits, and flowers that they inhabit; which every walk offers to view ; and on which new observations may be made without end. Besides these advantages, no study affords a fairer opportunity of leading the young mind by a natural and pleasing path to the great truths of Religion, and of impressing it with the most lively ideas of the power, wisdom, and goodness of the CREATOR.
Select Books on British Insects. 1. General British Entomology.-Albin's History of English Insects, 4to, 1749.--Harris's Exposition of English Insects, arranged on Fifty-one coloured Plates, exhibiting nearly Five Hundred Figures, 4to, 1776-82.-Barbut's Genera of English Insects, 4to, 1781.- Donovan's Natural History of British Insects, illustrated by coloured Figures, 16 vols. royal 8vo, 1792-1818. - Marsham's Entomologia Britannica, vol. 1, Coleoptera, 8vo, 1802. Some very interesting particulars of British Insects will be found in the third volume of Mr. Bingley's Animal Biography, a work admirably adapted for the perusal of young persons : Messrs. Kirby and Spence's volumes offer likewise an endless source of entertainment and instruction, Mr. Graves's Naturalist's Pocket Book furnishes some good directions for taking and preserving Insects and other objects of Natural History; and Mr. Samouelle's Entomologist's Compendium contains a very useful CALENDAR of the times and appearance, and usual situations, of 3000 Species of British Insects; an account of the modern System of Entomology, and a variety of other interesting matter. Taylor's Anecdotes of remarkable Insects is a pretty book for young persous. Notwithstanding the works just enumerated, we are still in want of a compendious Treatise on British Insects, with coloured plates, so as to form a useful and agreeable pocket companion in our rambles : until such a work appears, we must supply its place with Mr. Wood's Linnæan Genera, already noticed -Adams's Essay on the Microscope, 4to, 1787, should be in the hands of every Entomologist.
2. Particular British Entomology.-BUTTERFLIES and Moths. Lewin's British Butterflies, 4to.-Harris's Butterflies and Moths, fol. 1766.-Butterflies, Moths, and the Plants they feed on, by Wilkes, 4to, 1773.–Martyn's Psyche, or Figures of rare Moths and Butterflies, 4to, 1797.-Specimens of Butterflies, from Mr. Lee's Collection, fol. 1806. - Haworth's Prodromus Lepidopterorum Bria fannicorum, being a concise Catalogue of British Lepidopterous Insects, with the Times and Places of Appearance in the Winged State, 4to, 1802.-Haworth's Lepidoptera Britannica, 8vo, 1803. Bees.--Mr. Kirby's Apum Angliæ Monographia, 8vo, 2 vols.-Huish's Treatise on Bees, 8vo, and his Cottager's Manual, 12mo.-On the modern practical management of Bees, as adopted by Mr. Espinasse, consult Jennings's Family Cyclopædia, art. Bee, or the Transactions of the Society of Arts, vol. xxxvi. Spiders.--Martyn's Natural History of Spiders, 4to, 1736. Estri. – Bracy Clark's Treatise on the Bots of Horses and other Animals, 4to, 1815. -For a list of books on Entomology in general, we refer to Time's Telescope for 1820, p. lxviii.
THE from po races it be looked told on
THE name given to this month by the Romans was taken from JANUS, one of their divinities, to whom they gave two faces; because, on the one side, the first day of this month looked towards the new year, and, on the other, towards the old one,
This is alsorate the "ostituted in the si
In JANUARY 1823.
1.-CIRCUMCISION. This festival was instituted in the sixth century, to commemorate the circumcision of our Saviour. This is also New Year's-day, which has ever been considered a season of joy and congratulation for blessings received and dangers escaped in the past year. The antient custom of going about with the wassail, `a bowl of spiced ale,' on New Year's-eve, Twelfth-night, and Christmas-eve, is still kept up in many places. See our last volume, pp. 1-3. New Year's gifts were formerly presented on this day, in England, by the husband to the wife, the father to the child, or the master to the servant; reversing the Roman custom, which was generally from the inferior to the superior. The gifts were not confined to par
Years old by the masth was ge
ticular things, though some were preferred to others, and they appear to have been offerings peculiar to the season, and made more for ceremony's sake, than for a token of remembrance, or for value. An orange stuck full of cloves was one of this class. Eggs dyed of different colours were also sent as presents, particularly red ones; which was the favourite colour of the Celtic nations. It is remarkable that a similar custom prevailed in Persia at the beginning of the last century, when they celebrated the commencement of their solar year by a feast, at which they gave each other coloured eggs. Verses in the shape of compliment or congratulation were formerly sent as new year's gifts, and were, consequently, plenty enough during the season. An old tract, treating of this custom, says, “The poets get mightyly that day (new year's day) by their pamphlets, for a hundred elaborate lines shall be lesse esteemed then in London than a hundred of Wansfleet oysters at Cambridge.' The English nobility formerly sent the king a purse of gold, as a new year's gift; a custom derived, without doubt, from that observed by the Roman knights toward the emperors. The Law Society of Lincoln's Inn, as they were formerly great observers of Christmas, so they were accustomed to greet new year's-day with mirth and good fellowship. The seat of the King of Christmas in the hall was filled by his marshal, and the master of the revels supplied the vacant seat of the marshal thus elevated to the throne of the sovereign. In truth, the gentlemen of Lincoln's Inn seem to have lived righte merrily in antient times, and never to have missed any excuse for a wassailing of which they could avail themselves.
The new season (observes a modern writer) seems naturally to bring with it anticipations of good fortune, and thus it heightens the deceptions which reconcile us to life, or rather increase our love of it. In truth, the entrance of the new year bas . peculiar
charms:--the lengthening days, the earth about to rise from the cheerless sleep of winter, the exhilarating feelings at the approach of Spring, the incipient song of birds, the increasing sunshine, are all calculated to repress sad thoughts by the delicious sensations they inspire. It is the character of human nature to fling itself confidently upon the future, and even to leap amid its darkness. The past is beyond our power, the present is become the past ere we can reflect upon it: man, therefore, has only the future for the haven, in which he can anchor his little bark of expectations, and he looks to it with delight, always flattering himself that there he shall find good holding-ground, and see
The seas for ever calm, the skies for ever bright. The greetings and wine-cups that usher in the new year are not wholly empty ceremonies. The division of time entered upon has a thousand hopes on its wings. We are dependent upon it for many things which we have to achieve, or which we promise ourselves will be achieved for us.
The merry village-bells ring in the stranger year over the generations sleeping insensibly beneath them. To a thousand ears in the full flush of life, youth, and health, they waft sounds of gladness, and
Another year, and then those sounds shall hail
The day again, and gladness fill the vale, *Another year,' and again the jolly rebecks' will sound and the same merriment be repeated, for even the pleasures of life are but a string of such stale repetitions. Still let us make the most of them, and not live too much upon those of 'to-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,' but endeavour to employ and enjoy well the present time: let us be more anxious to be able to call truly our past years happy ones at their conclusion, than to hope at the beginning that each new one may turn out to be so.
New Year's-day in Paris is the most remarkable