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cavalry into Iuka, of which Doctor Bond of your forces has been obliged to complain. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W, S. ROSECRANS,
HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE SOUTHWEST,
Camp at Helena, Ark., October 16, 1862. Maj. H. Z. CURTIS, Assistant Adjutant-General.
SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith list* of killed, wounded and missing in the skirmish of October 11, 1862. I sent the general yesterday a letter from myself and also one which came by flag of truce from General Holmes. To-day I send all the prisoners I have here on account of General Holmes' statement that he has placed those taken from us in close confinement, and their fate will depend on General Curtis'
I inclose copy of my letter to Holmes acknowledging the receipt of his. The sentiments expressed are my own and do not bind General Curtis to any course. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E. A. CARR,
Camp at Helena, Ark., October 15, 1862. Maj. Gen. T. H. HOLMES, Little Rock, Ark.
GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication dated Little Rock, October 11, 1862, inclosing one for Maj. Gen. S. R. Curtis, commanding the Department of the Missouri, for my perusal and transmission to him. I shall transmit your letter by the earliest opportunity. It speaks of two inclosures, which were not found in the envelope. I have some prisoners, including Lieutenant-Colonel Giddings, Twenty-first Texas (Cavalry), whom I should have been glad to return with your flag for exchange, but as you state in your letter to General Curtis that you have ordered all the prisoners taken from us now in your hands into close confinement (in violation of the cartel) to await his answer I shall of course be obliged to place my prisoners taken from you in the same position and shall send them to Saint Louis to be placed at the disposition of Major-General Curtis. Permit me to say that I deprecate as much as you can the introduction into our unfortunate war of any practices not tolerated by the usages of civilized nations. It has been reported to ine that some of the prisoners taken by the Twenty-first Texas on the 11th instant were murdered after they had surrendered and given up their arms; also tbat Major Rector, of the Fourth Iowa Cavalry, was treated with great indignity. I was tempted to retaliate on Lieutenant-Colonel Giddings and his party, but concluded to wait for an opportunity to ask an explanation and redress of the above grievance, which I now request you to furnish. Lieutenant-Colonel Giddings and his party and all prisoners in our hands have been treated with all the kindness consistent with security. Though it may not be my province to answer your letter to General Curtis, permitme to say from my own knowledge: First. That no arms have been issued by Federal officers to negroes in this part of Arkansas;
but on the contrary a party of our soldiers while engaged in depriving negroes of arms (obtained in some illicit manner) and in protecting the inhabitants from those very negroes and from the depredations of our own soldiers were attacked and captured after a severe fight, at which time also an inoffensive citizen in feeble health was killed by your soldiers. Many other instances have occurred in the neighborhood of Helena where soldiers placed as safeguards over the property of the inhabitants outside of your chain of sentinels have been captured and carried off. Second. We have never pretended to insist that all of your soldiers should be dressed in uniform, because we know you could not furnish it. My definition of a guerrilla is a man who pretends to be a peaceful citizen at one time and a soldier at another, as many of the small parties through the country do. We have recognized men on the battle-field who a few days before were in our camp for the purposes of trade, and one was killed in a skirmish not long since with a pass from our provost-marshal of recent date in his pocket.
There is no usage of civilized nations which would give the rights of war to such persons, and the only way to stop such practices is to destroy the houses and farms of persons so offending, and yet I know of very few instances where this punishment has been meted out by this army. Most of the conflagrations which have occurred have been the result of the lawlessness of individuals and in defiance of the orders and the most strenuous exertions and watchfulness on the part of our officers, and I know of no single instance in this State where a
guerrilla has been executed after being taken prisoner. In some I instances citizens have burned their own houses and those of their
neighbors and the acts have been ascribed to our soldiers, and there has been a systematic burning of houses, mills, and cotton-gins in our neighborhood ever since we have occupied this place.
In these remarks I do not pretend to answer your letter directed to my commanding officer, Major-General Curtis, but to meet with an instant denial any charges of deliberate and intentional violation of the laws of war by this Army of the Southwest, with which I have had the honor to be associated during its whole campaign. Whatever may be the policy of my commanding officers and of the Government I shall most cheerfully follow it out, and hope that you will not compel the Government to resort to severe measures of retaliation. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E. A. CARR, Brigadier-General, Commanding.
OFFICE COMMISSARY-GENERAL OF PRISONERS,
Detroit, Mich., October 16, 1862. General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington.
GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose herewith charges* received from Major Turner, judge-advocate, in relation to the furnishing of military clothing to rebel prisoners and other transactions at John. son's Island, together with the roportt of Maj. W. S. Pierson, the commanding officer, in reply, supported by abundant proof, from which it appears that the charges came from men without any reliable character and are without the slightest foundation. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. HOFFMAN, Colonel Third Infantry, Commissary-General of Prisoners. Omitted here; see Turner to Stanton, Oct. 2, p. 591.
† Not found.
OFFICE COMMISSARY-GENERAL OF PRISONERS,
Detroit, Mich., October 16, 1862. Maj. PETER ZINN, Commanding Camp Chase, Columbus, Ohio.
MAJOR: My headquarters are to be immediately transferred to Washington City and you will please therefore address your communi cations to me accordingly. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. HOFFMAN, Colonel Third Infantry, Commissary-General of Prisoners. (Same to other prison commandants.)
OFFICE COMMISSARY-GENERAL OF PRISONERS,
Detroit, Mich., October 16, 1862. Capt. H. W. FREEDLEY,
Assistant Commissary-General of Prisoners, Camp Chase. CAPTAIN: After completing your duties at Camp Chase you will proceed to Louisville, Ky., and ascertain from the provost-marshal there what number of prisoners are held and their character. Learn what are the conveniences for providing for them and how many can be accommodated there, what system is pursued in guarding and caring for them in every way and how far it is practicable to put in force the regulations which govern at other stations where prisoners are held, and report to me on all other matters connected with the prisoners that it is proper I should know. Complete the service with as little delay as possible and report in Washington as already instructed. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. HOFFMAN, Colonel Third Infantry, Commissary-General of Prisoners.
The above order was not received at Camp Chase by Captain Freed. ley, and on November 11 was re-written at Washington substituting Alton for Camp Chase in the first sentence and Washington for Camp Chase in the address.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE GULF,
New Orleans, October 16, 1862. Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
SIR: There was an exchange of prisoners made in this department on the 16th instant at Baton Rouge. We received from the Confederates eighty-six, all Western men, and a list* of whom I herewith inclose to you. They go to New York to-day by the steamer McClellan, with the exception of three, who belong to the Twelfth Maine Regiment, which is in this department. By order of Major General Butler: I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. S. DAVIS, Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General.
ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, October 29, 1862. Respectfully referred to Colonel Hoffman, commissary-general of its prisoners, with a copy of instructions to Colonel Loomis to send the s exchanged prisoners named within to Camp Butler, Springfield, Ill.
EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Iowa City, Iowa, October 16, 1862. Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington, D.O.
SIR: Governor Kirkwood directs me to again call your attention to the lowa soldiers taken prisoners by the rebels at the battle of Shiloh, afterwards released on parole, now at Benton Barracks, Saint Louis, Mo.
All the rebel prisoners taken at Donelson, Shiloh and Island No. 10, in a large part by lowa troops, have been returned to the rebels, but no Iowa
man received in exchange. Our people know this and are greatly dis
satisfied and feel that the Government is not treating our troops fairly, live and will so feel until they have a sufficient reason for this fact. Will you
inform me why it is that no Iowa mau is exchanged?
N. H. BRAINARD,
HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION,
Memphis, October 17, 1862. Maj. Gen. T. C. HINDMAN,
Commanding Confederate Forces, Little Rock, Ark. SIR: I had the honor to write you on the 28th ultimo in partial answer to your communication of the 23d ultimo, and now inclose you General Curtis' full reply* to the matters contained in yours. It should not be that men of enlarged intelligence should make civil war more desperate than it is sure to be made by the acts of a class of soldiers who all their lives have been used to the largest amount of liberty to do their will, good and bad. You know full well that on your side guerrillas or partisan rangers commit acts which you would not sanction, and that small detachments of our men commit acts of individual revenge, leaving no evidence or trace whereby we can fix the responsibility. Instead of yielding to this tendency we ought gradually to improve discipline so that each general in command can trace all acts and then assume the full responsibility. If we allow the passions of our men to get full command then indeed will this war become a reproach to the names of liberty and civilization. No later than yesterday some guerrillas in the State of Arkansas, near Needham's Cut off, fired 12-pounder howitzer shells at the steam-boats Continental and J. H. Dickey, neither of which had on board a single soldier, except a reserve guard, or any Government stores. Both were loaded with goods for the use of the people of West Tennessee, who come to Memphis for the articles they deem necessary for the lives and comfort of their families, as also for the use of the inhabitants of Memphis itself
. Now we present the anomalous fact that in Memphis reside the
* Omitted here; Curtis to Hindman (two letters), October 10, p. 609.
wives and children of hundreds of men who, under (as we think) a misguided belief that we are enemies and invaders, are in arms against us. For my part I am unwilling longer to protect the families and property of men who fire from ambush upon our soldiers whether on the river-banks or the roadside, and I shall gradually compel such families to go forth and seek their husbands and brothers. I will permit them to carry away their household goods and servants, thereby reducing to that extent the necessity for providing for them at our markets. You may style this cruel and barbarous, but I know my heart and have no hesitation in saying to the Southern men, women or children, I will give all the help and assistance I can; that I respect their maternal and legal rights as much as you do, but I will also respect the lives and rights of others who pursue a lawful and common right to navigate the Mississippi River, which is not yours.
We are willing to meet you anywhere and everywhere in manly fight, but to the assassin who fires from the river-bank on an unarmed boat we will not accord the title, name or consideration of an honorable soldier. You may carry word to your guerrillas or rangers that when they fire on any boat they are firing on their Southern people, for such travel on every boat, and if that does not influence them you may trust to our ingenuity to devise a remedy; for every grade of offense there is a remedy. We profess to know what civilized warfare is and has been for hundreds of years and cannot accept your construction of it. If, as you threaten in your letter, you hang an officer, a prisoner in your hands, in retaliation of some act of ours, conjured up by false statements of interested parties, remember that we have hundreds of thousands of men bitter and yearning for revenge. Let us but loose these from the restraints of discipline and no life or property would be safe in the regions where we do hold possession and power. You initiate the game, and my word for it your people will regret it long after you pass from the earth. We are willing to restrict our oper. ations as far as may be to the acts of war controlled by educated and responsible officers, but if you or those who acknowledge your power think otherwise we must accept the issue. My command as you kuow does not embrace Arkansas, but I will not allow the firing on the boats from the Arkansas shore to go unnoticed. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
W. T: SHERMAN, Major-General, Commanding.
WHEELING, VA., October 17, (1862.) Hon. REUBEN HITCHCOCK, Special Commissioner.
SIR: Governor Peirpoint requests me in his name earnestly to protest against the release of any prisoner sent from here without his direct recommendation or through me. Whenever this section of country is in a more settled condition he proposes to take up the cases of several prisoners for examination, &c.
We would not forward prisoners to Camp Chase except for the reason that we have no accommodations for a large number. From your former letters I feel satisfied that the Governor's wishes in this matter will receive at your hands all the consideration he can ask. Very respectfully,
JOS. DARR, JR., Major and Provost-Marshal-General.