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captive Jews, drowned even the wail of those that were enduring the agonies of death. Two thousand Hebrews perished in that fire.

From the time of this terrible execution, no Jew was allowed to live within the walls of Strasbourg. They might enter the city in the daytime; but every evening, at a fixed hour, a horn was blown from the cathedral-tower as a signal for their departure into the suburb appropriated to them. Now, however, their condition is changed, and they live in wealth and honour where their forefathers were massacred. I retired slowly from the Brand Strasse, musing on the future destinies of that remarkable people. For doubtless God will visit again his inheritance, and yet will ransom Israel. "Thou shalt arise and have mercy upon Zion; for the time to favour her, yea, the set time, is come.

For thy servants take plea

sure in her stones, and favour the dust thereof. So the heathen shall fear the name of the Lord, and all the kings of the earth thy glory."


[Concluded from No. CXCVIII.]


THERE are 1073 charitable edifices, distinguished by different designations, such as Sanniassy-muddum, Tiru-mailigei-inuddum, Pandara-muddum, Sandigeimuddum, and Muntapum, besides which, there are 80 Chuttrums, and 527 Choultries; besides some few shattered old muntapums, that are found on the high roads, which appear to have been originally dedicated to some deity or other, there are scarcely any ancient accommodations* for travellers in the Tinnevelly district. But the greater part of the charitable buildings are in large towns, and in the suburbs of a city, and where there is a great pagoda for the accommodation of Bramins, pilgrims, and devotees, that resort to form their vows and offerings to the temple, especially peron the anniversary festivals that occur. At these festivals the above classes are fed, to a limited number in each, by private munificence in some, and supported by voluntary contributions, or by corporate bodies of tradesmen, weavers, &c., in others. In many places where other public accommodations are wanting, reservoirs, wells, and resting-stones, on the high roads and by paths, refresh the weary traveller of every denomination.

There are about 703 Tamil day-schools, beside a few Hindu colleges for Bramins. The Rev. J. Hough, late Chaplain at Palamcottah, opened in the year 1817 in Tinnevelly a few schools connected with the Church Missionary Society. [We need not inform our readers that many more have been opened since the time of Mr. Hough. The Church Missionary Society has 112 schools, and 3397 scholars in the Tinnevelly district: and the Society for Propagating the Gospel, 364 scholars.]

The collectorate of Tirunelveli at present comprises 11 Talooks and 25 Zemindaries; and 3 Mittahs-from the original number of Peshcush Pollums, six have been annexed to the Zemindaries of those chiefs who served with fidelity in quelling the rebellions of the refractory Poligars in the year 1801.

This province is bounded on the north partly by the Shuddragherry mountains, between the portion of the Dindigul valley over Wursanaad, and partly by the ridge of hills dividing Dodapanaick's Zemindary and

In the year 1823 it was in contemplation to have bungalow accommodations for travellers built on the regular stages on the high road from Madura to Palamcottah and Travancore; these edifices were to be erected under the superintendence of the civil engineer of estimates and tank repairs. [These have all been built.]

the Terrumungalum Talook of Madura. On the east by Ramnad, on the south by the sea-coast, and on the west by the great chain of mountains, covered with forest, which separates it from Travancore.

The extreme length of this province from north to south is 110 miles, and its average breadth from east to west 40 miles, exclusive of the hills and forest. It contains 4403 square miles. The country is diversified with paddy, cotton, and dry-grain fields, and is exceedingly fertile, especially the lands dependent on the Taumbrapurney, Sittar, and other rivers; these furnish two abundant harvests in the year.

The great chain of hills denominated the Ghauts traverses more than 100 miles, in dividing the provinces of Tinnevelly from Travancore. Cape Comorin, the southernmost point of this province, separates the coast of Coromandel from the coast of Malabar: the eminences are covered with clouds for eight or nine months in the year. Tinnevelly is considered a hot country; but yet it has its advantages, as it participates of the monsoons of the Malabar coast partially, so as to render the heat moderate, compared with that of other adjacent districts to the north and east. In summer, the inequality of the soil makes these two provinces very unequal in their seasons: on the Travancore side of the mountains the inhabitants are often reaping in the months of June and July; while those in the Tinnevelly district then commence preparing the soil by ploughing and sowing, on account of the advantage which the S.W. monsoon affords. The dews are very heavy from the latter end of December to February, which promotes the growth of vegetation, such as horse-grain, pulses, and other small grain called paspalum ferment, pannicum italicum, and pannicum millaccum, which are usually obtained before the Peeshanam harvest of paddy. But during the latter part of this period, the season becomes unfavourable; fevers and agues prevail. As the lands soon become parched, after the harvest the water in the canals and tanks dries up, the heat increases progressively till it becomes intense, particularly towards the hills, where there is scarcely any breeze, except the disagreeable whirlwind which commences about the end of March. The sca-coast at this season often attracts the collectors, residents, and other gentlemen in Tinnevelly_and Palamcottah, from the months of During these months, the weather about the hills is February or March to the middle of May or June. intolerable, as well as in the open tract of the black cotton soil, where there is scarcely a vestige of vegetation to afford a shelter, and the sensation caused by a scorching glow which prevails is scarcely supportable. Most of the cattle from the open country are driven to the hills for pasturage (for two or more months), where they find a sort of herbage that is very nourishing for them; sheep and goats are said to grow fat upon it. In the months of March and April, the casual rains (called Koddei marei) are looked for. It is at this season that they often find hail after a heavy shower of rain, and the weather becomes more favourable. Any failure of rain in these months renders it otherwise. From the middle of May or June to October, the atmosphere becomes clouded, owing to the proximity to the S. W. monsoons in Travancore and Malabar. Westerly winds prevail at this season, which not only abate the heat in a great measure in the open country, but render it very temperate and salubrious in the vicinity of the Hills; particularly at Courtallum, Pappanassum, Shevagherri; and beyond the hills of Tallamallay in the Dindigul valley, where nothing can be more delightful, particularly to Europeans, than the summer months. The climate resembles that of the Neilgherries, and is almost equal, it is said, to that of the Cape of Good Hope. In the times of the reign of the ancient princes, that resided then at the seat of government in Madura, it appears that they were in the habit of resorting to the Hills, to

enjoy the summer season at Pappanassam, where there are pavilions built on the verge of the Taumbrapurney river, contiguous to the water-fall called the Kallianniteertum. There are also evident remains of a palace at Pappanassam. This country, towards the hills, is subject to almost incessant rains, called Shonay. But the land-winds prevail, and are very violent in the months of July and August. The period of summer in Courtallum is generally considered beneficial to health, on account of the refreshing showers which abound on this range of the mountains and its neighbourhood for 10 or 15 miles. Bathing under the falls of the cataracts of the Taumbrapurney and Sittar rivers, is supposed to be beneficial. The principal times observed by the Hindus for bathing in the Courtallum water-fall are on the days of the Arpisse vissuvu, Chettri vissuvu, and Chettri púrrúnúm, or the days of the full moon in April. The latter originates from a tradition they have of its being the anniversary of the saffron rain. The people who resort here for bathing on that day ascend to the first fall of the stream, called Thane arrivú, or the Honeyfall. Besides the above-mentioned days of bathing, the Addi and Tie ammavassies, solar and lunar eclipses, are in general days for their ablutions. But the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages resort to it twice a-week, that is, on Mondays and Fridays: the last Friday in the month, especially, is considered a very auspicious day for it.

The gardens at Courtalluma bound with all sorts of exotic vegetables and fruits, such as cabbages, turnips, carrots, lettuce, &c., &c.; as well as oranges, limes, lemons, pumpelnoses, which are reared in abundance in the gardens of gentlemen. But the inhabitants of the country are rarely known to cultivate them. The N.E. monsoon commences here about the middle of October; previous to which time the European visitors abandon the place, and the wild animals of the hills often resort to shelter round their deserted buildings. In the months of December and January, fever, fluxes, and agues, prevail among the inhabitants; and the ravages by small-pox in February and March are often very alarming.

The mountains of Courtallum are the highest on that range of the Ghauts, but the summits are well cultivated in some parts, and abound with spice and coffee plantations. The persevering efforts of Mr. Casamajor on the part of government in the year 1800, have spread fertility over a small part of the mountains, which nature seemed to have consigned to everlasting barrenness. Besides the indigenous productions of cardamums, the nutmeg-tree, and the coffee. shrub, grow exuberantly in these gardens; and the annual expense to government in the year 1821, amounted to rupees 1,224, for the establishment of gardeners; but the production (of late), both in coffee and nutmeg, has abundantly repaid the expense, and is said to add considerably to the revenue of that collectorate.

statement prepared by J. Cotton, Esq., then collector, the population amounted to 629,350. But, by a better and more diligent inquiry, instituted by recommendation of Colonel Mackenzie, with the sanction of government in the year 1821, the result from the tables, drawn up according to the division of people into castes and professions, gives the whole population of Tinnevelly, including the Zemindaries, as 788,740 inhabitants; exclusive of the garrison, consisting of one battalion of native infantry, and its dependents.

The town of Tinnevelly is of considerable antiquity. It is situated upwards of a mile from the west bank of the Taumbrapurney river, at the distance of 35 miles from the sea (where that river disembogues), and the town consists of six principal villages, viz. 1st, Nelleiyambalam; 2d, Ettucunnarie: 3d, Tenputtee; 4th, Pautaputtu; 5th, Candiapary, and Palliaputtadapettah: these, with their subordinates, are so united as to form one chief town, which bears the common name of Tinnevelly, and contains 6857 houses, of which there are 142 upper-roomed and terraced, 323 low-terraced, and 741 tiled buildings, and the remainder thatched, giving 3:35 to each family, and 23,024 inhabitants. It is on a low site, surrounded by paddy-fields: the streets are under water during the rains. The town is advantageously situated on the Shutá Mallay, and Arnapuram canals, which form two fine branches of irrigation. There are 12 principal streets and 142 lanes, several of which have names descriptive of the various professions, castes, and employments of the inhabitants: the eastern and southern parts of the town are occupied chiefly by Bramins, and those to the north and west of the temple are lined with bazaars, and the houses of the Sudra part of the population. Except a few of the principal streets, that are wide and airy, they are intricate, and thickly crowded with houses: the greatest part have thatched roofs and mud walls; amongst these, however, are several edifices, as above enumerated, with attic floors, flat-terraced with sloping verandahs; and a few very handsome buildings. A commodious and extensive upper-roomed house, near the S.E. angle of the great car street, is the dwelling of a respectable and opulent Goozerat Bramin, of the name of Tocki, His residence is adorned with splendid furniture of British manufacture. Scarcely a year is said to pass without fire making some ravages among the thatched buildings. But the most dreadful calamity that ever happened to Tinnevelly was in the year 1779, when the fire reduced two-thirds of the town to ashes. Besides the bazaars, which are well furnished with commodities, there are several granaries, where paddy, dry grain, and other kinds of pulse, are sold. A market is held every Thursday in the western suburb, called Pallia Pettay, which was established in the reign of Mungamaul (the Queen of Madura), where several articles of consumption, such as grain, onions, yams, vegetables, cotton, yarn-cloths, nuts, salt fish, and salt (the two latter being brought from the coast), are exhibited for sale.

The census of Tinnevelly was obtained from the respective village Kurnums, as they stood in the years 1821-22 and 23, during the collectorship of the late J. B. Hudleston, Esq., for the greater part, and concluded in the time of J. Munro, Esq., who issued strict injunctions to the several Tassildars, Zemindars, and Mittahdars, &c., enjoining them to advance the object of such inquiries by every means that lay in their power; in the hope of producing an accurate account of the population.

It appears, that an inquiry was instituted in the year 1811, requiring collectors of different districts to give their opinions on the population of their respective collectorates, in consequence of the prevalence of an epidemic fever which raged in the southern provinces, and caused a great mortality. The collector, J. Hepburn, Esq., furnished an estimate which contained 690,696; and in October 1817, according to a

The great Shiven temple, which is dedicated to the goddess Candimadeammin, and her consort Nelliappen, bears marks of great antiquity and former grandeur. It is said to have enjoyed many privileges, which are found recorded in the numerous inscriptions on the walls and the inner apartments of the pagoda. The pagoda is composed of three square enclosures, one within the other; the outward wall is 770 feet by 550, 27 feet high and 4 feet thick. It has five spires or gobrums, that is, two on the east, facing the sunnadee; and the remaining three front the other cardinal points: six poojahs are daily performed, commencing from the dawn of day till midnight. Besides which, there are numerous other acts of private devotion performed.

The expense of the above ceremonies, conferred by government, amounts to 40 rupees per diem. There

are twelve festivals, celebrated periodically; two of these are grand festivals, viz. the one which happens in the month of June, and is held in commemoration of the birth of the god; and the other in the month of October, commemorating his nuptials: these are usually solemnised in all the Shiven temples; on those two occasions five cars are highly decorated, and drawn in procession through the streets of the town. The expense on these occasions for the latter is 1554 rupees, and for the former 1550. At the season of the festivities the large muntapums on the east gate of the temple are decorated for the reception of the idols, when they are taken out in solemn train through the principal streets that surround the pagoda. The expenses of the other festivals are defrayed by government, and vary from 74 to 375 rupees for each on the whole, the expenses for the great Shiven temple annually amount to 17,871 rupees, 9 annas, and 1 pice.

The festivals for Permaul, or Vistnu, happen twice a-year, in the months of September and March, when cars are drawn equal to the expense allowed them, which must not exceed 210 rupees. Independently of these, there are 21 lesser temples within the precincts of the town; to each of which an allowance of one rupee per diem is conferred to defray the expenses of their respective establishments, &c. There are besides several substantial edifices, built of granite, dedicated to the use of the idols; and here food is usually served out to a limited number of Bramins alone, by funds arising from donations, and other charitable offerings: besides the muntapums, there are muddums appropriated for the dwelling of sanniassics, and chuttrums for the reception of Bramin travellers. In Tinnevelly there are no less than 60 private schools, chiefly Tamil, and a few Sanscrit, Hindoostanee, Arabic, &c. In these schools an average of from 30 to 40 pupils each gives 2100 children that receive education. Besides these, four mission schools were opened in the year 1817, by the Reverend J. Hough. The missionaries have a meeting of the school-boys on every Wednesday evening, in the town, where the Hindus, both men and women, often give their attendance, to hear a portion of Scripture read and explained. Of Mahomedan places of worship there are ten principal mosques, four of which are designated by the term Musjeeds, and fourteen Pu'ly wassils or lesser ones, together with several other inferior kinds, known by the name of Fakeers Faikal: the whole of these are supported by mohins, or small sums in money conferred by government, according to the former usages of these institutions. There are two Romish churches, and a few chapels: the one at Palliapettay is the largest, where a Goa priest resides; and the other is on the north side of the town, called Candiapary, built in the year 1786. The tassildar holds his cutcherry in the outward apartment of the great pagoda, so as to give access to the lower classes of the inhabitants in general.

The police administration of the Talooks and Zemindaries is vested in the tassildars, since the office of darogahs was abolished in 1820. A commissioner's court is held here for the recovery of small debts; the former under the control of the magistrate, and the latter subject to the authority of the judge at Madura. [Now it is subject to the auxiliary court.]

The zillah of Tinnevelly was established in the year 1808, when the court of Ramnad was incorporated with Madura. This court was abolished in August 1822, and annexed to the zillah of Madura. The court-house and its dependent buildings are surrounded by a high wall, on the south side of the temple; since the appointment of James Munro, Esq. collector, in June 1823, this building was devoted to the establishment of the Huzzoor cutcherry. [An auxiliary court was established in Tinnevelly in 1827.] Tinnevelly (the town) cannot claim any consider

able share of manufacture for itself, so much as its neighbourhood. Besides the common long-cloths, &c. manufactured by the Kykolar weavers, used for the dress of the common people, reed-mats are made by Moormen or lubbays, and the puttay arrack is distilled by the Elavers, who are also the venders of that article: they also carry on a small manufacture of cloths. There are two paper-mills for the manufacture of coarse brown paper, which, in texture and colour, is much inferior to that made at Madura. In no country to the southward are there more carts known to be employed than in Tinnevelly; they afford employment to a great number of the inhabitants in conveying grain, cotton, cloths, straw, tobacco, and especially firewood, bamboo, and timber, &c. &c., from the hills, which are situated from forty to fifty miles on the west.

A Sermon

For Christmas-Day,

Assistant Minister of Camden Chapel, Camberwell.
LUKE, ii. 10-14.

"Fear not; for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day, in the city of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men."

THE birth of a child is, under any circumstances, an event of the highest interest. Expectation has at length given place to reality; another being has come into the world, to fill our place when we are gone, and to run his course of joy or suffering, till he is called on in his turn to make room for those beneath him. At such a season every heart beats high with expectation, and every countenance is lighted up with pleasure. The cheerful tones of congratulation, the light step of innocent gladness, the pressure of the friendly hand, are there, till the father's heart is softened with the consciousness of his happiness, and the mother feels her pangs requited for joy that a man is born into the world. We gaze on the new-born infant, as he sleeps all careless of the interest he has excited; and hope, with fond credulity, will image forth many a scene of usefulness and delight in which he may live to share. Yet there are sadder thoughts which crowd into the reflecting mind in spite of all its efforts. Is he indeed destined to survive the perils of infancy, and the adventurous rashness of youth? Will he be one of those whom good men delight to honour, serviceable in his generation, and leaving a bright example to all who follow him? or will he be one whose track is stained with guilt, and whose end is pointed at by shame? What hardships and trials, what buffetings and afflictions, may be

And then Christianity, where it exists at all, will always give birth to a new train of sentiments. We see before us a heir of immortality, a candidate for heaven, one whom God has loved, one for whom Christ has died, one to whom the Holy Spirit will not be denied, one whom we are privileged to bring to the holy font of baptism, and dedicate with grateful hearts to the service of his Maker. Yet will he rightly improve these means of grace? Will he pursue these hopes of glory with all the fervour and perseverance which they merit? Will the life he has derived from us prove ultimately a blessing or a curse? for on the right use of it depends the happiness or misery of an immortal soul. It is not the mere fleeting existence of a creature that is crushed before the moth; but the beginning of an endless life, with all the responsibilities of those whom God has called to a knowledge of his truth, and who have the awful alternative of heaven or hell set before them in the Gospel. Well may the parent tremble for the fate of his newfound treasure, and pray that that God who has been the guide and support of his own pilgrimage, may continue to vouchsafe undiminished mercy to the children that are given him.


the lot of this unconscious slumberer! What of love. But will God indeed dwell with furious passions may one day tear this help-men-with men benighted in ignorance and less bosom ! What vain hopes, and ardent depraved by sin? Behold, the heaven of projects, and bitter disappointments, may heavens cannot contain him; and how shall disturb his peace! And will he repay our he stoop to enter this the meanest and most present anxiety by soothing the infirmity of polluted region of his unmeasured dominions? our declining years? or will he bring our Or, if he come among us, in what guise grey hairs in sorrow to the grave? Alas, shall he appear that is suited to his dignity? we cannot tell. Years may pass away before With what awful terrors might we expect his character and destiny are determined; him to come armed, the heavens bowed beand we may never live to see the result, to neath his feet, the earth shrinking from his comfort him in his troubles, or to rejoice in presence, the guilty sons of men calling on his success. the rocks to fall on them, and the mountains to cover them from his wrath. Fear not, brethren; for God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through him might be saved. came, not to plague us for our offences, but to help our infirmities; not to call us to our account, but to provide a remedy for our sins. He came to make a way of reconciliation with his Father; to sacrifice his life as man, that men might live immortally; that, by virtue of his sufferings, we might be released from the fears and penalties of guilt; that, through his intercession, our prayers might be heard on high; that, by his doctrine, our nature might be purified, and our feet be guided into the way of peace; that, by his pattern, we might be modelled to every Christian virtue, and adorned for his eternal society and love. When the light of heaven first shines into our hearts, like the shepherds of old, we are sore afraid; but the voice of mercy still cries to us, Fear not; for, behold, I bring you glad tidings of great joy. Glad tidings of great joy indeed, that God has not cast off his people, but has remembered the promise that he made to the forefathers of our faith, to Abraham and his seed for ever. Glad tidings of great joy indeed, that unto you is born a Saviour. We looked for anger, and behold mercy; for vengeance, and behold forgiveness. The Judge himself has stepped from off his throne to suffer for us, and has resumed it to pronounce our acquittal. This amazing tenderness towards his creatures, this earnest and intense desire for their recovery to his likeness and his favour, shews that we can never apply to him in vain, or vainly seek the benefits of his redemption; shews, in fact, that we cannot be more anxious to receive salvation than he is anxious to bestow it. Thanks be to God, then, for this unspeakable gift. Thanks for that surpassing love which in fear, and in sickness, and in grief, still points to the place where the young Child lay, and gives us a comfortable assurance that, as he did not abhor the virgin's womb, so he will not disdain to make his abode in the humble and contrite heart.

These I suppose are thoughts which must be familiar to all at least who have rejoiced in the name of a husband and a father; for these are such as the first sight of our offspring is always calculated to excite. But we are met together now to celebrate the birth of an Infant to whom we may all claim relationship; of that auspicious Babe on whose appearance our eternal interests depended. In the fulness of time God sent his Son into the world in form and fashion as a man, and made under the law, that we might be redeemed from its curse. This was the greatest event the world had ever witnessed, the object for which all other events had been directed by an overruling Providence. Prophets and righteous men had desired in vain to see it; nor could the very angels of heaven anticipate the accomplishment of this mysterious act of wisdom and

"And, behold, I bring you glad tidings of

among the which was Dionysius the Arco-
pagite, and a woman named Damaris, and
many others." And why, amongst many
others, should Dionysius the Areopagite,
and a woman named Damaris, be specified?
Why, but to bid you mark that the doctrine
of the apostle was such as no learning would
be disparaged by confessing, and no feeble-
ness of intellect should be incapable of re-
ceiving. Unto you, then, whatever be your
age, or sex, or rank, the enormity or con-
tinuance of your guilt, the weakness of your
nature, or the
nature, or the pressure of your temptations,-
unto you, we proclaim good tidings of great
joy, that there was this day born unto you a

great joy, which shall be to all people." | tain men clave unto him, and believed; Though the message of mercy was first delivered to the shepherds, they were not to entertain the selfish notion that they had any exclusive interest in it; nor, on the other hand, to be saddened by the thought that any of God's creatures were overlooked in this visitation of his love. He would have us know that his goodness is as unlimited in its operation as it is wonderful in its nature. Not, alas, that we may hope that all will profit by it; on the contrary, we have too much reason to believe that many will find their condemnation aggravated by the abuse of those privileges which were intended for their blessing. To such we cannot say, Fear not; for there is every thing for them to dread. We cannot say that we bring them good tidings of great joy, while they are immersed in worldly pleasures; for we are bound to proclaim that danger overhangs them, and "a fearful looking for of wrath and fiery indignation." We cannot speak thus to such as are hasting to be rich; for to the poor is the Gospel preached, and hardly shall the rich man enter into the kingdom of God. We cannot speak thus to such as are climbing the heights of ambition, and panting after the honours of the world; for our language is, Except ye become as little children, except ye become as this little child, ye shall in nowise enter into the kingdom of heaven. But the gift is spoken of according to the effects it is properly calculated to produce. It is justly called good tidings of great joy to all people, that unto them is born a Saviour, if they will but close with his gracious offer, and accept the salvation he came down from heaven to bestow. There is no distinction of persons in his system; high and low, rich and poor, ignorant and learned, are equally invited and equally welcome. See how from the first he called around his cradle men of opposite kinds-the poor shepherds from the quiet innocence of their pastures, and the wise men from their studies in the east; and dear to him was the simple homage of those rustics, who seemed to typify him that came to seek the sheep that were lost, and lead them to the green pastures and living waters of his love; and dear to him was the high-born adoration of those magi, as they cast their crowns before his feet, and poured into his lap the abundance of their offering. Could any thing better teach us that no situation in life is so exalted but what religion claims its deference, and none so humble but what religion proffers to it the riches and honours of immortality? It is precisely in a similar spirit that you are told of the result of Paul's preaching to the Athenians. "Howbeit cer

And this Saviour is here called Christ the Lord, that is, the anointed Lord, a title which, you may remember, is frequently applied to our Redeemer both in the Old and New Testaments: and this is not without a meaning. There were three classes of men whom it was customary to anoint when they were consecrated to their respective offices, viz. prophets, priests, and kings; and in each of these relations does the blessed Jesus stand to all his true disciples. He is our Prophet; for he came to teach us the things that belong to our peace; and without his teaching we can know nothing as we ought to know it. He has taught us our origin--that the body of man was formed out of the dust, and the spirit was an emanation from God himself. He has taught us our fallen condition - our first parents having offended their Creator, and transmitted an evil nature to all their children, which renders them prone to sin, and liable to con demnation. He has taught us the mode by which we may become reconciled to God by looking to Him that bore our sins in his own body on the tree, and humbly, yet faithfully, claiming the promised imputation of his merits. He has taught us to expect his Spirit to cleanse and sanctify our hearts, and to make us meet for that inheritance of glory which is prepared for them that love him. And whence had this Man such knowledge to impart to us, but that he was that anointed Prophet by whom the Father would unfold the great mysteries of godliness? One of his titles is "the Word." This is the name so often given him by St. John at the opening of his Gospel: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." And he was so called in the opinion of the Fathers, because he was the mode of communication from God to man; because he was the Messenger and the message, the Prophet and the truth, whom Love had sent for our salvation. And this

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