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preceded by a messenger who should come in the spirit and power of Elias, we find God at sundry times, and in divers manners, speaking to the fathers by the prophets, of this stupendous instance of his compassion and condescension.
Our gracious Lord, with the manifold blessings which he hath procured for his Church, is spoken of indeed as the "mystery" which had been "hid from ages and generations,' but which was at length made manifest to the saints, for he is thus represented in the epistle to the Colossians; but the apostle would have us to understand, not that God's purposes of mercy were wholly unknown previous to our Lord's advent, but merely that they were indistinctly understood. Jesus is particularly styled the "desire" of all nations. At the period of his birth, many were waiting for the consolation of Israel, for the fulfilment, in fact, of those prophecies which had foretold a Redeemer; and we are expressly assured, that into the blessings connected with the incarnation of the Son of God "the prophets inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come; searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ that was in them did signify, when it testified before the sufferings of Christ, and of the glory that should follow."
and commotions? They were taught to an-
We cannot doubt that this language had a most cheering influence on the minds of the true servants of Jehovah, that by such promises they were animated to patient perseverance in well-doing, to implicit trust and confidence in the Most High, and that they were enabled to anticipate that day, when the Word should become flesh and dwell among men, and they should behold his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth, "when from the time of Moses to Ezra, there passed not a single generation without the accomplishment of some prophecy, delivered by Moses and his successors.'
The design of the Almighty, then, in revealing from time to time the advent of the Messiah, was not simply with a view to prove that Messiah to be his well-beloved Son, and to afford many incontrovertible proofs that Jesus was he, but to comfort his servants, and to call their faith and hope into exercise.
The tendency, and doubtless one important object, of God's revelation was unquestionably to support his servants by the promise of a Deliverer; and its influence was beautifully illustrated by the effect produced on the mind of Abraham, who, on our Lord's own testimony, rejoiced when he beheld his day afar off; and on that of the Psalmist, whose compositions breathe the spirit of a holy joy, from the anticipation of the advent of that King of Zion who was all his "salvation and all his desire."
How animating were the prophetical descriptions of the blessings which should accompany the appearing of the Son of the Most High! Did the people of God mourn their desolations, their oppression by their enemies? They were thus cheered by the language of Isaiah: "Comfort ye, comfort ye, my people, saith your God; speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and say unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned, for she hath received of the Lord's hand "O thou that double for all her sins." bringest good tidings to Zion, get thee up into the high mountain, and thou that bringest good tidings to Jerusalem, lift up thy voice with strength,-lift it up,-be not afraid; say to the cities of Judea, Behold your God." Were they distracted by internal broils, and wearied and harassed by perpetual strifes
IMMANUEL, OR GOD WITH US.*
Or all the names whereby God the Son has been
which yields to believers so rich a fund of comfort
and our salvation overturned at once; take away the
From "Titles and Offices of our Lord Jesus Christ: illus trated in a Series of Essays." By Isabella Gray Mylne. In 2 vols. Edinburgh, Oliphant and Son.
his grace, and Spirit, we should, in law and nature, all be dead towards God, and certainly shut out from eternal life. We have reason, then, to love and value him to stand up for his Deity and divine personality; for take away these, and we lose our God, and our salvation; and what have we more?"
The name Immanuel occurs only three times in the Bible, viz. in Isaiah, vii. 14, where the miraculous conception of the Saviour is foretold, "Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a Son, and shall call his name Immanuel;" in the chapter following, where the land which had been so long under the rule and protection of the Son of God, and which was to be honoured with his personal presence as God-man, is called Immanuel's land (Is. viii. 8); and in the first of Matthew, where the former prediction is directly applied to the infant Saviour, and the name interpreted: "Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a Son, and they shall call his name Immanuel; which, being interpreted, is God with us" (Matt. i. 22, 23).
This name Immanuel might stand for the general title of the work in which we are engaged. It embraces the whole substance of what we endeavoured, in the first part, to prove, viz. that our Redeemer being God, all the attributes of the Godhead, which must otherwise have been against us, are, if by faith we are united to him, engaged on our side. It embraces also all we have been endeavouring to prove in this second part, viz. that the second Person of the holy Trinity has been from the beginning God with men'; the Agent of revelation, counsel, guidance, protection, government, and salvation, to the people of God. And this blessed name embraces also all we have to say of Christ to his people in the remainder of our work; for every office he sustains, every grace he bestows, derives its power, value, and efficacy, from his being Immanuel. Since, then, it is the design of this whole work to shew forth the glories of Immanuel, we shall be the more brief in the particular consideration of the title, merely offering a few remarks on the three senses in which it may be taken: 1st, as God with us, or God in our nature; 2d, as God with us, or God on our side; 3d, as God with us, or God dwelling with us.
1. First, let us dwell for a moment on the astonishing fact, that the glorious Jehovah, the Creator of heaven and earth, did really assume human nature in conjunction with the divine, and condescend not only to wear it during his state of abasement, and then cast it off as a garb of degradation, but to bear it up with him to the highest heavens as a robe of triumph, which he was to wear for ever. "God! what more glorious? Flesh! what more vile? God dwelling in the flesh what more wonderful?" saith Augustine. How unspeakable is the honour thus conferred on our fallen race! What a pledge is thus given of God's willingness to restore that race to bliss and to glory!
2. For, secondly, wherefore did the mighty God become "God manifest in the flesh?" It was that he might become God on our side; and, as far as we can judge, no other being in the universe could have accomplished the stupendous work of man's redemption but One who was both God and man. "It was impossible for any but a divine Person to be a Mediator, Redeemer, Surety, Prophet, Priest, and King, to meet the revolted, lost, ignorant, and rebellious condition of fallen man; nor was it less necessary that this divine Person should assume the nature of the transgressors, and therein execute the whole work of their redemption (Rom. viii. 3, 4; Gal. iv. 4, 5). Nothing can be more delightful than to observe in what respects the personal conjunction of the divine
and human natures is necessary to the exercise of every office, the sustaining of every relation, and the standing in every state proper for our blessed Redeemer." This delightful task is the one we are privileged to undertake; by shewing, in the future parts of this work, in what form and manner the Redeemer appeared on earth, and the offices and relations, to exercise and sustain which, he became "manifest in the flesh."
• Hurrion's Sermons.
3. Meantime, there is, thirdly, a delightful sense in which we may take the name Immanuel, viz. as "God dwelling with us." We have seen that from eternity the Word, or Wisdom, had his delights with the sons of men; and that as the Angel-Jehovah he often visited his saints, and admitted them to commune with him with astonishing nearness and freedom; and, to shew his willingness to assume our nature, did frequently appear in the form of a man; but when he actually became incarnate, this communion with men was consequently much more intimate and familiar: Immanuel dwelt with men on the earth, and conversed with them face to face, as a man speaketh with his friend. Are we not sometimes inclined to envy those who had the high honour and privilege of communing with God in our nature? Yet the disciples experienced more blessed communion with their Lord after the withdrawing of his bodily presence, in the rich manifestations of his spiritual presence, which, according to his promise, he vouchsafed to them. And similar manifestations are promised to, and experienced by, the true disciples of Immanuel in every age. Ungodly men may deride as enthusiastic the aspirations of the saints after a lively sense of God's presence, or their devout acknowledgments of the enjoyment of his presence; but that cannot be enthusiasm which agrees exactly with the promises of Christ to his disciples; such as, "He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me; and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him" (John, xiv. 21). "If a man love me, he will keep my words; and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him" (John, xiv. 23). Jesus promised to uphold and preserve his disciples, not only by a secret indwelling unknown to themselves, but that they should know that they were in him, and he in them (John, xiv. 20). He invites them to taste the richest delights in communion with himself, saying, "Behold, I stand at the door, and knock; if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me" (Rev. iii. 20). These promises were abundantly fulfilled in the experience of the early Christians. They knew that Jesus Christ abode in them by the Spirit which he gave them (1 John, iii. 21); they knew that God dwelt in them, and they in him, because he had given them of his Spirit (1 John, iv. 13); they knew that the Son of God was come, and had given them an understanding, that they might know him that was true yea, they knew that they were in him that is true, even in Jesus Christ (1 John, v. 20).
And what wonders has the presence of Immanuel wrought in every succeeding age of the Church! Upheld and supported by him, his people have bravely encountered their fiercest adversaries, and encouraged each other to the conflict, saying, "Their defence is departed from them, and the Lord is with us; fear them not" (Numb. xiv. 9). The countenance of Immanuel lifted up upon his people has given light in the darkest dungeon, tranquillity in the raging tempest, dauntless courage and fortitude in the prospect and in the endurance of the most agonising sufferings, whether from the hand of man or of God. Through the strength of their ever-present God, they have
• Brown's Dictionary of the Holy Bible.
been enabled to meet death in every shape, whether in the appalling terrors of martyrdom, or in the lingering progress of disease and decay, not only with composure, but with joy and triumph; knowing and feeling that God was with them, in all the senses above mentioned; with them, by sharing their nature, and thus sympathising in their every sorrow; with them, as employing all his divine perfections on their side; with them, in the sweet tokens of his special presence, which, in their hour of need, he most richly bestows.
To creatures such as we are, helpless, exposed to danger on every side, and entirely dependent upon God, what question can possibly be so interesting and momentous as, "Whether God be on our side, or against us? If God be for us, who can be against us?" Muland if God be against us, who can be for us? titudes, it is feared, give themselves little concern regarding this question, and take it as a thing of course that God is on their side, because God has It is a blessed truth indeed assumed their nature. that by the incarnation, sufferings, death, resurrection, and ascension, of the Son of God in our nature, every man living has the strongest possible warrant to come to God for salvation, and the strongest possible assurance of God's willingness to be on his side; but, alas, it does not follow as a thing of course that God is on his side; on the contrary, all this may only serve to deepen his condemnation.
How, then, can we ascertain our own state with regard to this solemn question? Two tests whereby to ascertain it naturally arise out of what has been said: 1st, We may know that God is on our side, if we are on his side; 2d, We may know it by the value we set upon presence. Many think it First, Are we on God's side? enough if they do not oppose the cause of God, and flatter themselves that they are occupying a safe neutral position. Fully engrossed by their own concerns, and those of the world, they have neither time nor inclination to take part in the great contest that is carrying on between the hosts of God and those of Satan. But do men act thus in regard to contests of another kind? When their country is invaded by a hostile nation, or when civil dissensions break out within their own land, do they think it enough not to join the ranks of the enemy? Although all cannot bear arms as trained warriors, are not the hearts of all engaged on one side or the other, and the hands of all ready, as occasion offers, to advance that cause to which they are attached? Does not every individual so identify his own cause with that of his confederates as to rejoice in every instance of their success, and mourn over every occasion of their defeat, as though it affected his private and personal interests? In every contest between men, indeed, there must be a large mixture of error on each side; and a conscientious mind may often be forced to remain neutral, and a Christian will ardently desire their peaceful termination; but in the contest between heaven and hell, between holiness and sin, between God and the devil, neutrality would be criminal, were it possible. We say, were it possible; for, in fact, it is not so. There is no individual who has not some influence in the diffusion either of good or evil; and the more moral and amiable we are, while destitute of a vital principle of godliness, the deeper injury we do to the cause of the Gospel, by leading men to believe they can be virtuous and happy "without God in the world." And although we may not have it in our power to engage in active services for the cause of Immanuel, we may yet discover in our minds such a deep interest in that cause as shall assure us that we are on his side. For instance, we shall grieve for the declensions of the Church, long for her revival, joyfully hail any symptoms of returning zeal and purity in her members, and anxiously watch over her inWe shall be terests, as though they were our own.
grieved for the affliction of Joseph (Amos, vi. 6), and prefer Jerusalem above our chief joy (Ps. cxxxvii. 6). And if such be our secret emotions, we shall find some means, however small, of proving them in action. It is one of the features of the present age, that it confounds these two opposite sides, so that it is often impossible to discover to which of them men belong. Perhaps the days may not be far distant when the cry shall be made," Who is on the Lord's side-who?" and when adherence to that side shall require more than the passive acquiescence, the calm neutrality, with which professed Christians at present content themselves. If these days should come in our time, O, may we be found on the Lord's side, though it be with the loss of all things!"
But, secondly, we are to test the Lord's being on our side by inquiring in what estimation we hold his presence. It is one mark of an unrenewed state, that we secretly say to God," Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways:" but after we have tasted that the Lord is gracious, our continual cry is, "Lord, lift We O, when wilt thou come unto me?" thou up the light of thy countenance upon me.” henceforth value his manifested presence above all earthly joys, and mourn his absence more than all If, then, it be our earthly griefs; at least, it betrays a very low state of grace when this is not the case. chief delight to enjoy such glimpses of God's blessed countenance as our present state permits, we need not fear that he will hereafter gather our souls with the bloodthirsty, but may joyfully look forward to seeing the King in his beauty, without a cloud between, in the land that is very far off, and being ever with the Lord.
Finally, let it be our most earnest desire and prayer for ourselves, and all belonging to us, that "the Lord Jesus may be with our spirit;" for it is only through" the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ" that we can enjoy "the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost."
THOUGHTS IN SOLITUDE.
BY JOSEPH FEARN.
No. II.-Simon the Cyrenian.
In my last paper I attempted to shew that the season of retirement was eminently fitted for the right contemplation of divine things; and I think I should be doing dishonour to those who habitually peruse these pages, were I to doubt that, as many an eye glanced over my essay, many a heart responded to its sentiments. I verily rejoice in the persuasion, that many have found the promise of the Saviour fulfilled in their experience: "Thy Father, which seeth in secret, himself shall reward thee openly."
Having made these introductory observations, it will be my aim, in the remainder of this series, to present to the reader what has from time to time furnished delightful and profitable material for the writer's meditations, when, away from the tumult and din of this dissipating world, I have pondered the truths of our holy religion, or dwelt on some interesting incident in the Scripture histories. In reading the account of our great Redeemer's sufferings and death, I was much struck with the introduction of the individual into the narrative, whose name stands at the head of this paper. We hear but little of Simon; the statements of the each three evangelists are concurrent respecting him; mention him with great brevity, particularly St. Matthew, who merely styles him, "a man of Cyrene,
Simon by name;" St. Luke is almost as brief; St. Mark is somewhat more particular in his sketch of him, calling him, "the father of Alexander and Rufus:" but one and all agree in the narration of what he did on that memorable day, when He who was the "eternal Son of the Father poured out his soul unto death."
If I might make my choice of these three statements, I should be inclined to select St. Luke's for my preference: "And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might hear it after Jesus." O, how I feel, when I read the words, "as they led him away!" Methinks I see Him, who was "holy, harmless, and undefiled," arraigned as a malefactor at the bar of Pilate, and then taken to the place of crucifixion, without resistance on his part, when he could have commanded legions of angels to descend to his relief; yet he quietly went forth to finish the work which had been given him to do, and then was fulfilled the saying of Esaias the prophet: "He was led as a lamb to the slaughter; and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth." Yes, they led him away, clad in the scarlet robe, crowned with the pointed thorns, and holding the reedy sceptre; and he turned not back, but on he went to the mountain of Calvary, to shed his precious blood for a world of rebels, who else would have perished without mercy. And now appears the man of Cyrene, and the cruel and relentless Jews seize him, and force him to bear the cross after Jesus. Then Jesus bore it first, St. John saith: "And he, bearing his cross, went forth into a place called the place of a skull." His exhausted frame then was wearied with the terrible exertion; and it would seem that Simon was compelled to ease him of the load, and bear it to the place where the Son of God was to be crucified. But having done this, his part was done; it was the "Man of Nazareth," not the " of Cyrene," who was to be shortly stretched upon that fatal wood; it was "the Brightness of his Father's glory," that had veiled himself in a mantle of flesh, and was about to be made " an offering for sin;" it was not the blood of a mere mortal that was about to be shed-that could never placate Divine justice; but it was the blood of the "Only-begotten of the Lord," "the everlasting Son of the Father;" that blood was sufficient to ransom the whole world, and win back the long-lost favour of an offended God; "the blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, cleanseth from all sin." Ought we not to retire from such a scene as the death of our Redeemer full of contrition and sorrow for sin, and full of gratitude for the atonement made upon the accursed tree? What are the practical results accruing from the cursory glance at this little incident respecting Simon the Cyrenian?-Why, the question should suggest itself immediately to our minds, if we are really the disciples of Christ: Have I ever borne the cross after Jesus? Have I taken heed to his solemn declaration, "if any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me?" We read that this man of Cyrene was " pelled to bear his cross;" do we murmur and rebel at any of the trials we are called to endure for the sake of the Saviour of our immortal souls? Do we take up
the cross as though we were forced to do so; and do we say, with one of old, "This is a grief, but I must bear it?" If this is the case with any of my readers, I cannot but entertain the fear that they are not the true followers of the Lamb, the real disciples of Him who voluntarily and cheerfully laid down his life for their eternal salvation. Let, then, the writer say, in conclusion," He that taketh not up his cross, cannot be his disciple." Let these awful words continually sound in their ears, and impress their hearts; and in place of reluctantly bearing the cross, for the sake of Him who died thereon in unparalleled anguish, let them adopt the language of Paul the aged, and say, "God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ." Happy they who, like Simon the Cyrenian, are privileged to bear the cross after Jesus, because when the season of suffering is finished, they shall drop the heavy load at the end of their journey, and entering into the many mansions prepared for them by their Lord and Master, shall have a sparkling crown of fadeless glory placed upon their immortal brows, which crown they shall cast at the feet of the Redeemer.
TINNEVELLY (properly Tirunelveli) is a province of some celebrity near Cape Comorin, and is considered one of the holy countries in the South of India, called Detchinadesam. It lies between 7° 57' and 9° 51′ of north latitude. In times of remote antiquity this province formed part of the great Pandian dynasty, the capital of which was Madura, and it was divided into principalities and states denominated Nauds, governed by a race of Cshettrie princes, whose designation was Maha Chackrawarti Pandy Rajah: their government was monarchical and despotic; each state possessing an internal government independent of the rest. The succession was hereditary. Their sway continued till the fourteenth century, when their dominion was subverted by a Mahomedan invasion from the north; and governors were henceforth delegated by the Delhi sovereigns,† to whom the country became tributary for forty-eight years. Their dominion again was overthrown by the Rajah of Mysore, whose administration in the Pandy kingdom continued till about the year 1404 A D., when a Gentoo family in the service of the Maha rayer, in the Annagundi province, acquired the government of the Madura kingdom, and enjoyed it nearly 260 years. This family was succeeded by the ancestors of the celebrated Trimulnaigue, known by the name of Kurtakle; who frequently became independent, in consequence of the convulsions in the supreme government. Trimulnaigue, the last of the Gentoo kings, died, after a long and prosperous reign, in the year 1666. The government of these countries in 1738 was assumed by the Nabob of Arcot; until it was transferred by a treaty in the year 1801 A.D. to the Honourable Company during the collectorship of Stephen Rumbold Lushington, Esq. (afterwards governor of Madras), then collector of the Pishcush Pollams in Tinnevelly, Ramnad, and Manapar.
Tinnevelly, in conjunction with the countries of Madura proper, Dindigul, South Coimbatoor, Trichinopoly, and those of the great and lesser Maravers of Ramnad, and Shevagunga, and the Zemindaries comprehended in the above-mentioned districts, forms one Hindu geographical division of the Pandian kingdom. The boundary is defined by the ancients to be fifty
Extracted from the second volume of "The South India Christian Repository." Madras: printed by C. Sampie; London, Nisbet and Co.
+ Under the Delhi sovereigns from 1324 to 1372, A.D.
six kadums* (equal to 560 English miles) in circumference.
The following were the principal sea-port towns of the great Pandian empire, commencing from Kotiepallanam and Minbeshel in Tanjore of the Choli Rajah's dynasty,Sundripandi pattanam, Vuttanam, Tondi, Devipattanam, Attancurie, Tonitorei (Pamben in Ramaseram Island), Mootoopettei, Keelacurrie, and Veimbar in Ramnad, now under the collectorate of Madura: Vypar; Tutugudi; Kayalappattanam ; Tiruchendur; Manapadie; and Cape Comorin in Tirunelveli and these are separated from Ceylon by the gulf of Manaar. The most remarkable entrances or passes across the great chain of woody mountains defining the western boundary of the Pandian empire common to the other dynasty pertaining to Sharen, are as follows:-Annimalli pass, on the limits between South Coimbatoor and Cochin; Tallamali, Vullackeipara, or Choureymalli passes (these are on the limits between Dindigul and Travancore): Atchinkovil pass, Arriankovil pass, and the Kotatapillei pass, Shurimutian pass, Arrumbullie pass, and Kotteicurravasself to Cape Comorin, are on the limits between Tinnevelly and Travancore. To the north, the boundary is defined partly by the rivers Noyel and Agundei Caveri, and by the Vellar; the latter at present divides the Arcot collectorate from Trichinopoly.
This fertile region, by the splendid monuments of its former grandeur, viz. religious structures, tanks, reservoirs, canals, annicuts, &c. &c., and other charitable foundations, still affords a very just idea of the former prosperity of the agriculturists, and of the opulence of the government. The primitive manners and customs of the mass of the population are preserved in great purity in Tinnevelly and the adjacent districts.
The Silla Sassanams, or inscriptions, are very numerous in Tinnevelly; they are found inscribed on granite walls without and within the cincture of the temples, containing memorials of gifts and privileges bestowed on religious institutions, being either grants of land, or other offerings to the pagoda and its establishment of Bramins, styled "Durmasanam" by the ancient rulers. Their title and dignity, as here recorded is, Teru-Bonichacrau-wartie, Maha Pandian Rajah. In those very ancient times they made no specification of dates except the aundu, the year of such a one's reign, the day of the week, the age of the moon, the name of the periodical constellation, together with the auspicious indications of the celestial bodies; and the preamble contains an ostentatious description of the titles, valour, and dignities of the donor; setting forth his excellence, power, and influence in very hyperbolical language. The Sassanams are generally found to be written in the vernacular language of the country, the old Tamil; several have a mixture of Sanscrit, and some few of Mallayalum: some are defaced by time, but many are intelligible and in a well-known character. Several copies were transmitted to Calcutta to Colonel M'Kenzie.
In that division of the Southern Carnatic denominated the Pandian dynasty, the lapse of centuries appears scarcely to have made any change in the habits and peculiarities of the Hindoos, either in their civil condition or religion.
The Tamil is the vernacular language, and this differs materially from that spoken north of the Colleroon river. The Telugu, a language of the northern countries, is spoken chiefly by the Bramins, Gentoos, Kummawars, Reddies, and Totiars; those who speak this language are supposed to be a people that emigrated
A kadum is equal to 7 Malabar miles, or 10 English miles. A gate-way is built on the lines, which forms an entrance into Travancore, and a road leads to Cape Comorin; an Havildar's guard of the Rannee's sepoys is usually stationed here to afford protection to the Choukeydars, as well as to prevent smuggling. [The aundoo is generally considered to be the year of the era commencing with the founding of Quilon (properly Collam), we are now in the 1013th year of it.]
in remote times from the northward, and consequently this language marks a different origin from that of the Pandy aborigines. The Bramins generally have their sacred writings in the Telugu language, much mixed with Sanscrit; and they consider Tamil Shavuddies, or cadjan books, to be of an inferior description, unworthy of preservation or of being held sacred. The provincial accounts of the Talook Cacheree, and Huzzoor establishments are drawn up in the Mahratta language, which appears to have been recently introduced into the several collectorates. The real Mahomedans are comparatively few in proportion to the Lubbays; among the latter, the vernacular language of the country principally prevails.
Tinnevelly is distinguished by the number and variety of its places of worship. It contains (including the Zemindaries) 2783 Siva, Vishnu, and other notable temples; of which forty-two are considered peculiarly holy. Besides, there are 9799 sundry petty kovils of male and female deities; and 513 Mahomedan places of worship. The inferior order of religious edifices pertaining to the lower classes of the Sudra tribe and predial slaves, &c., contains 1286 Shanar and Elaven kovils; and 972 Puller and Parriar places of worship. Out of 45 Protestant churches and chapels formerly existing in the time of the Reverend C. F. Swartz, there are only 25 churches and chapels at present remaining, the largest of which is at Palamcottah, built by a Braminy woman, a proselyte of the Rev. Mr. Swartz. Several catechists were ordained in the year 1810 at Tanjore as native priests, one of whom, by name Vissuvasenaden, had the charge of a congregation in the Tinnevelly province. He resided at Valladdy, in the Arhwar Tirunagarie district, in the very midst of idolatry, and occasionally went about the villages teaching and preaching to the pagans; he made upwards of 300 converts during his residence in that district. His Christian meekness and piety commanded the love of his converts, as well as the respect of the pagans and Mahomedans; but a sensible less has been sustained by the mission by the number of churches that have fallen to decay. There are 141 Roman Catholic churches and chapels, under the Bishop of Cochin; of these Vuddakankolum, a village in the Kalakadu Talook, S. by W. 331 miles of Tinnevelly, is the residence of the principal vicar of that district.
Division of sects.-Devotees of Shiva, 603,033; devotees of Vishnu, 113,676; Mahomedans, 49,211; Protestants, 3320; Roman Catholics, 19,500; total amount of population, 788,740.
In the times of the three ancient dynasties, Sheran, Sholan, Pandian, in the South of India, many buildings were erected for religious uses; the most ancient of them are probably from 800 to 1000 years old. Of the religious edifices there are several distinguished by huge pyramids of solid and durable workmanship. The form of temples both ancient and modern is always the same; the Hindus are well known to be attached to the customs of their ancestors, and they appear not to have departed from the style of their public edifices. The gate of entrance to their pagodas generally fronts to the east (with very few exceptions, in which it fronts the south and west); and the pyramidical spire is usually from 70 to 150 feet high. The pagodas of the first order contain three courts before approaching the residence of the deity, and the whole is encompassed by a high granite wall from 500 to 900 feet or more in length; and its precincts contain a variety of other buildings dedicated to minor tutelar deities.
Some of the most extensive remains of antiquity in this province are those at Tinnevelly, Tachanalur, Suttamalli, Manur, Srivikuntum, Azwar-Terunagari, Teruchendur, Nanganacheri, Tirrukkurrungudi, Seranmahadevi, Teruppdeimarudur, Attalnalur, Brahmadesam, Ambasamudrum, Manarkovil, Pappanassam,