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Nor will he turn his ear aside From holy offerings at noontide: Then, here reposing, let us raise A song of gratitude and praise.
What though our burden be not light,
Blest are the moments, doubly blest,
Why should we crave a hallow'd spot? An altar is in each man's cot,
A church in every grove that spreads
Its living roof above our heads.
Look up to heaven!—the industrious sun
Lord, since his rising in the east,
Help with thy grace, through life's short day,
When we shall sink to final rest.
PURITANISM TRIUMPHANT.-Many of those venerable structures, which were the glory of the land, had been destroyed at the Reformation, by the sacrilegious rapacity of those statesmen and favourites to whom they had been iniquitously granted. The remainder were now threatened with the same fate by the coarse and brutal spirit of triumphant puritanism. Lord Brooke said, he hoped to see the day when not one stone of St. Paul should be left upon another. A sentiment of vulgar malice towards Laud may have instigated the ruling faction, when they demolished with axes and hammers the carved work of that noble structure, and converted the body of the church into a stable for their troopers' horses. But in other places, where they had no such odious motive, they committed the like, and even worse indecencies and outrages, merely to shew their hatred of the Church. It was such acts of sacrilege which brought a scandal and an odium upon the reformed religion in France and the Low Countries, and stopped its progress there, which neither the Kings of France nor Spain could have done, if horror and indignation had not been excited against it by this brutal and villanous fanaticism. In some churches they baptised horses or swine, in profane mockery of baptism in others, they broke open the tombs, and scattered about the bones of the dead; or, if the bodies were entire, they defaced and dismembered them. At Sudley they made a slaughterhouse of the chancel, cut up the carcasses upon the communion-table, and threw the garbage into the vault of the Chandoses-insulting thus the remains of some of the most heroic men, who in their day defended and did honour to their country. At Westminster, the soldiers sat smoking and drinking at the
altar, and lived in the abbey, committing every kind of indecency there, which the Parliament saw and permitted. No cathedral escaped without some injury painted windows were broken; statues pulled down or mutilated; carvings demolished; the organs sold piecemeal for the value of the materials, or set up in taverns. At Lambeth, Parker's monument was thrown down, that Scott, to whom the palace had been allotted for his portion of the spoils, might convert the chapel into a hall; the archbishop's body was taken, not out of his grave alone, but out of his coffin; the lead in which it had been enclosed was sold, and the remains were buried in a dunghill.—Southey's Book of the Church.
ADVANTAGES OF ENGLAND.-In conclusion, therefore, I will only add, that after traversing so many countries, observing so many different modes of civilised and semi-barbarous life, and becoming acquainted with such various political and religious institutions, it is with increased pleasure and admiration that I contemplate the state of society in our favoured land. Some nations, perhaps, may boast more taste and refinement; some, a more showy literature and more splendid public monuments; and others, more renowned achievements in arts and arms: but in the solid advantages and comforts of life, in profound learning and experimental philosophy, in private and public virtue, in all that secures domestic happiness and peace, or constitutes lasting excellence and real greatness; the administration of equal laws and impartial justice; the enjoyment of a liberty as yet restrained from licentiousness; and the free exercise of a religion equally removed from the extremes of fanaticism and indifference,-I know not the equal or the rival of Britain. Nor can I indulge for my country a higher hope than that she may long retain, under the Divine favour, the institutions which have for ages been her glory, enhanced in value by the gradual but judicious correction of their accidental defects, and consolidated in strength by the increased public estimate of their superior merits; that we her sons may be preserved from a bigoted prejudice in favour of what is old, and a feverish appetite for what is new; and above all, that we may never be deprived of that security for national soundness of doctrine, correctness of practice, civil liberty, and religious example, which is presented to us by an institution endeared by early associations, and consecrated as the well-tried bulwark against anarchy and infidelity, the establishment of the Church of England.-Elliot's Travels.
SOLITUDE.--An hour of solitude passed in sincere and earnest prayer, or the conflict with, and conquest over, a single passion or "subtle bosom-sin," will teach us more of thought, will more effectually awaken the faculty, and form the habit, of reflection, than a year's study in the schools without them. A reflecting mind is not a flower that grows wild, or comes up of its own accord. The difficulty is, indeed, greater than many, who mistake quick recollection for thought, are disposed to admit; but how much less than it would be, had we not been born and bred in a Christian and Protestant land, very few of us are sufficiently aware. Truly may we, and thankfully ought we to exclaim with the Psalmist, "The entrance of thy words giveth light; it giveth understanding even to the simple."-Coleridge (Aids to Reflection).
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ROBSON, LEVEY, AND FRANKLYN, 46 ST. MARTIN'S LANE.
WORLDLY CAREFULNESS INCOMPATIBLE
WITH CHRISTIAN GODLINESS.
BY THE REV. WILLIAM BUSWELL, B.A.
THERE is not, perhaps, a sin which our Lord so repeatedly warned his disciples against, as that of anxious, distrustful care concerning their worldly interests; for such anxiety and carefulness not only argued a weakness of faith in Christ and his promises, but was also a proof that their treasure was still laid up upon earth; and we well know that where the treasure is, there will the heart be also. To this grievous sin we are all of us so prone, and into it the very best and the most faithful may be betrayed by some insidiously lurking feeling-either that of pride, or love of ostentation,-that our Lord censured, though mildly, even the kind offices of hospitality when they engrossed too much of the thoughts and affections, and interfered with that which must ever be the first and principal duty of the creature, namely, the worship of that adorable Being, "whose service is perfect freedom," and the welfare of the immortal soul. "Martha, Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things: but one thing is needful." Well, then, might St. Paul, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and deeply impressed with the vast importance of sanctity and holiness, urge on the Philippians, and on all who would be "followers of God, as dear children," the necessity of renouncing the world entirely and unreservedly, and of not being entangled with the affairs of this life: "Be careful for nothing."
VOL. VII.-NO. CLXXXVI.
But if over-anxiety and carefulness in things that are lawful, that is to say, respecting food and raiment, be a sin, as it most undoubtedly is, how greatly must that sin be increased when we are anxious and over-careful concerning things that are unlawfulsuch as the pleasures and vanities of the world-and devote all our time and attention to what we have so solemnly pledged ourselves to renounce! O, how great must be our guilt, how enormous our wickedness, when, in defiance and in utter disregard of that righteous God, who " hath not called us unto uncleanness, but unto holiness," we are "careful" to make "provision for the flesh to fulfil the lusts thereof;" and when we trifle away in scenes of profligacy and vice, and in the pleasures of sin, which can but endure for a season, those few, and fleeting, and precious moments of our earthly existence, which ought to be devoted to holy and heavenly pursuits! "Dearly beloved, I beseech you, as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;" "cleanse yourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of the Lord;" and for his sake who died to redeem you. As far as regards the things of this present life, "be careful for nothing" but nevertheless there is one thing needful; there is one thing concerning which it is both your interest and duty to be careful, namely, the welfare of your souls, and your fitness for eternity. Remember, "you are not your own, you are bought with a price," even with the precious blood of the immaculate Lamb. Prepare then, O sinner, to meet thy God. "Be careful" for thy soul's health; "be careful to
[London: Robson, Levey, and Franklyn, 46 St. Martin's Lane.]
maintain good works;" and "be careful, not for the things which are seen, but for the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal." "These things are good and profitable unto men."
I would now ask you, my reader, whether you are careful and anxious about your worldly concerns, your merchandise and your gains, your pleasures and amusements. I would ask you whether, in sinful distrust of that gracious Being who rules over and protects you who upholds and supports you - you look forward, with trembling anxiety and care, for the meat which perisheth, and how, for the future, your wants may be supplied? If this be so, and I fear that all of us must more or less plead guilty to the charge of weakness of faith and distrustfulness of God,-let me impress on you the necessity of cheerful and unqualified obedience to the command of the apostle, "Be careful for nothing;" and also to that of the Saviour himself, "Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink, nor yet for your body, gleswick, in Yorkshire, of which his father was vicar ; what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment? Behold the fowls of the air; for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?"
This devoted servant of God, whose name is comparatively little known, was born A.D. 1588, at Gig
and whose privilege it was to see all his sons, five in number, effective ministers of the Church of England. Of these not the least eminent was the subject of the present memoir, who was a member of
Trinity College, Cambridge: he became rector of St.
It is, however, our duty, to labour diligently in our several avocations and pursuits; it is part of the curse, that " in the sweat of thy face thou shalt eat bread, till thou return unto the ground;" yet we must live without distrustfulness and fear, and look to God alone for a blessing on our labours. Prosper thou, O Lord, the work of our hands upon us; O prosper thou our handiwork." "Behold the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain ;" and thus, when his part of the work is performed, he commendeth it into the hands of his heavenly Father, and sleeps, and rises, night and day, and the seed springeth and groweth up, he knoweth not how. In like manner, do you "cast all your care upon God, for he careth for you;" and when you pray, "Give us this day our daily bread," make not a mockery of your prayers, nor render them nugatory and vain, by doubting whether you shall receive what you ask for; but ask in faith, and "ye shall receive, that your joy may be full." Commit the matter wholly to God, and disturb not yourselves with fearful anticipations for the future; but concerning your temporal affairs, and the things of this probationary life, "be careful for nothing." To those of my readers
Mary Woolnoth, in London, A.D. 1611, and subsequently archdeacon of Colchester. The living of St. Mary's he would never relinquish for any other of higher value, though frequently placed within his reach; he felt he could not conscientiously do so. According to his own statement, in a pamphlet which he published in the year of his death, styled "An elegiacal Commemoration," it is expressly stated that he was, on several occasions, offered higher preferment; but that he was "unwilling, when he had brought the souls of his neighbours part of the way to heaven, to leave them to a new convoy." His talents were unquestionable. His church was attended by persons of the greatest eminence. He preached twice on a Sunday, and lectured every Wednesday. It is somewhat difficult to conceive any different sense that is implied between lecturing and preaching at the present day. The sermon and the lecture are, though not always in the same strain of doctrine, pre
cisely on the same model of composition; and it is to
be questioned, whether the lecturer is not called upon chetical character than they usually assume. There to make his discourses more of an expository and cate
can be little doubt that the most beneficial effects would result from the adoption of such a course, which, to a certain extent, combines catechetical with what may be termed pulpit instruction.
who are poor, this may appear a hard saying. Your families are large, your wages small; or perhaps you may be in want of employment, and "no man hath hired you." Your condition is confessedly wretched and pitiable; but I would ask you, Have you always trusted in the Lord? May not your present need be a punishment for former distrustfulness? "I have been young," says the Psalmist, "and now am old; yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed begging bread." Let this encourage you to cast all your care upon God; and with respect to the perishable things of this sinful and perishing world, "Be careful for nothing." "Trust in the Lord and do good: so shalt thou dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed."
THE VENERABLE JOSIAS SHUTE, B.D., Archdeacon of Colchester, and Rector of St. Mary Woolnoth, London.
The most unquestionable testimonies are on record as to the efficiency of Mr. Shute's ministrations. His church was well attended, as has been observed, on the Sunday; and especially so on the week-day by his brother clergymen. His preaching was uncom
promising. He faithfully rebuked vice, even in the highest quarters; and he was ever mindful that, though a portion of his congregation consisted of the great, the wealthy, and the learned, yet that the poor among the flock were not to be forgotten. Almost every clergyman has found the extreme difficulty of suiting his discourses to the relative position of the several members of his congregation. To be enabled so to address the learned, as not to rise above the comprehension of the unlearned, and to address the poor man in a strain sufficiently plain not to descend to too great familiarity of expression,-is a most valuable talent, which Mr. Shute would appear to have possessed in the highest degree. A volume of his sermons, all preached A.D. 1641-42, was published by Mr. Sparke, rector of St. Martin's, Ironmonger Lane. "In his character were united," says Granger, "every qualification of an excellent divine. His learning in divinity and ecclesiastical history was extensive, indeed almost universal. His talent as an orator was perhaps unrivalled. He instantly caught, and immovably fixed, the attention. His life was a uniform example of unaffected picty. He was frequently styled the English Chrysostom, and was particularly conversant in the writings of that father. He first began to be neglected in the civil wars. His primitive virtues could not overbalance the prejudice conceived by some against his learning, which was not apostolical."
The times in which Mr. Shute was called to exercise his ministry were indeed peculiarly trying; and though strongly attached to the Church, and at the same time tolerant to those who dissented from its discipline, both parties seemed to oppose him. It was difficult to be a moderate man under the then existing state of the nation: such Mr. Shute wasmoderate in its true, legitimate sense; and to this circumstance may it be ascribed, that he was overlooked by those in power, and opposed by those who were plotting the overthrow of the Establishment. If there were then troublesome times for the Church of England, the times are little less troublesome now: a strong phalanx is arrayed against her. While her ministers act mildly, they must act firmly. Disagreeing, as they do, among themselves, on points far from unimportant, they must still bear in mind, that they have a solemn duty to perform; that union is strength; and that the very existence of the Establishment may, under God, depend on the circumstance, that there be no divisions among them. The spirit of Mr. Shute is precisely that which is the most likely to act the most effectually for the preservation of our Zion. If the enemies of the Church-men of every religious and non-religious complexion-meet for its overthrow, why should not all its ministers and members take council for its preservation?
Mr. Shute was a diligent student. In disposition he was frank, open, and generous. Large sums were confided in trust to his care for the relief of the needy; and to these he added as much as his own circumstances would allow. His attention in this respect was especially directed to the needy among the clergy. Reader, I do say, and will maintain, he "A Biographical History of England," &c. By the Rev. J. Granger, Vicar of Shiplake, Oxfordshire, Second ed., 1775.
was the most precious jewel that was ever shewn or seen in Lombard Street," is the only remark attached to his name in Zouch's Sketches of Yorkshire Biography. But, if brief, it is abundantly comprehensive; little more could have been added.
When Mr. Shute had been incumbent of St. Mary's thirty-three years, he began to decline in health. He fell into a swoon one day on leaving the pulpit, and from that time gradually sank. He retired to the country, about four miles distant, where he was often visited by his parishioners, between whom and himself the most perfect harmony had always existed, during the whole of his long incumbency. On the day of his death, in 1643, he prayed most earnestly for the Church and nation. He foresaw, probably, what would be the result of the unhappy position of matters, religious as well as civil; and in God's good providence he was saved from witnessing the tumults and enormities of the civil war. Soon after this prayer his spirit departed. His mortal remains were buried in St. Mary Woolnoth, a vast concourse of people attending his funeral, among whom were many nobility, and a vast number of the clergy. It was his dying request, that his funeral sermon might be preached by Dr. Holdsworth, rector of St. Peter-le-Poor. This, however, was not acceded to; and a more popular man, Mr. Ephraim Udall, rector of St. Austin's, was selected for the purpose. What must have been the state of party-feeling, when such a gross outrage was committed against a faithful minister's dying request! Popularity is a sandy foundation on which a minister is to rest his hopes of usefulness. This very divine afterwards became as much opposed as he was now applauded, and by the same individuals. The minister is to recollect whose ambassador he is, whom he is sworn to serve, whose message is committed to his trust; and if he is a faithful ambassador, a zealous servant, who delivers his message without fear or favour, he will not heed the reproaches, or be flattered by the applause, of those to whom he is set forth to preach, in all their fulness, the saving truths of the Gospel.
GAMBLING, AND ITS CONCOMITANT EVILS. No. II.-The Cockpit.
Ir is one of the most melancholy and humiliating descriptions of the heathen world, in which it is affirmed that the dark places of the carth are full of the habitations of cruelty. Cruelty, in fact, is a powerful evidence of the natural alienation of man's heart from God-implacable, unmerciful, is the description of his character in his natural state. Mercy is one of the most delightful traits of the renewed soul-that mercy which extends itself to the very lowest in the scale of animal creation; the wisdom that is from above is "gentle." And yet how sad is the reflection, that cruelty is not confined to the regions of paganism; that it presents itself, to a degrading extent, in our own nominally Christian land; and that amusements, if they may be so called, are engaged in with avidity, which would disgrace the Hottentot, and from which the savage would turn away with disgust! Among such amusements, that of cock-fighting may be ranked as one of the most outrageous; for of all others, perhaps it is the most calculated to brutalise the mind, and to
"Works of the Rev. Thomas Zouch, D.D., F.L.S.," &c. By Archd. Wrangham, 2 vols. 1820.
render it impervious to the entrance of any thing approaching to right feeling: it may be ranked under the same head as bull-baiting and dog-fighting, although the artificial means adopted to add to the cruelty of the misnamed sport, seems, if possible, to aggravate its heinousness. Two birds are pitted one against the other: the utmost care is taken as to their being of pure and proper breed; they are fed on scientific principles, by persons whose whole occupation it is; and immense sums are lavished in endeavouring to rear such birds as will prove victorious. Fortunes are often staked on the result of a main. Steel spurs are fixed on, to increase, if possible, the excruciating agonies of two miserable animals; and to witness their torments, hundreds of persons will assemble with delight. Such sport, as it is termed, meets with exalted patronage; and men of high blood and noble connexions, and even of education, will assemble with the very refuse and scum of society. The shouts of triumph, or the yells of despair, which mark the winners and the losers, can only be surpassed by that which shall proceed from the blackness of darkness for ever.
Is this language too strong? Assuredly it will not appear to be so to any one who has attended a cockpit. The wretched individual who can delight in witnessing the dying agonies of a helpless bird-lacerated, bleeding, expiring is a disgrace to human nature, whatever be the sphere in which he moves.
And yet how often is the cockpit the accompaniment of the race-course! how frequently do the pollutions of the one go hand in hand with the barbarity of the other! It is not affirmed that all who attend the racecourse would enter the precincts of the cockpit; or that a certain refinement of feeling would not dissuade many from joining in the one amusement, who see no harm in the other; but it is a truly degrading, and humiliating, and soul-rending spectacle, to perceive that the cockpit has its charms for many of whom better things might be expected, and who exchange, perhaps for the frivolous gaiety of the ball-room and the almost childish prattle which there prevails, the brutal society of the lowest, and the impious blasphemies that ring around the cockpit's walls.
I have walked along the streets of a well-known city in the sporting world, I have been sickened with the clamorous shouts proceeding from the den of cruelty, and been shocked to witness the feverish, haggard look of many a ruined spendthrift, who might have been an ornament to society, and a blessing to his neighbourhood. Alas! the love of gambling seemed entirely to have brutalised the heart. We have heard of two men, of immense wealth and high family, endeavouring to kill time on a wet Sunday afternoon at an inn, betting their thousands on which of two drops of rain, on a pane of glass, would soonest reach the bottom; and the story could only excite feelings of intense pity: but far different emotions are called forth when cruelty is exercised, and the man born in a Christian land testifies that, in point of fact, as far as the feelings of his heart are concerned, he is not removed from the savage.
Perhaps one of the most affecting events connected with gambling, which has come within my notice, was that of an elegant and highly accomplished girl, who was wedded to a man utterly brutalised by cock-fighting. She was sacrificed to gratify the vanity of her parents; for he was a man of property and rank-and verily they had their reward. He had concealed from her-though the infatuated parents knew it too wellhis fondness for low company, and his delight in cruel sports. For a season after marriage all was smooth; he treated her with apparent affection; but it was only for a time. He left her refined society for that of his former companions; he grew tired of the atmosphere of the drawing room, where his wife sought by every endeavour to remove his apparent ennui-that of the
cock-pit was more congenial to his feelings. She had never loved him: her affections were devoted to the brave and honourable son of a poor but highly respected family. After the birth of a still-born child, she died of a broken heart. It is just possible, that some one acquainted with the incident may direct his eye to these pages, and can point out the spot where the baby was laid upon her quiet breast in the chancel of the church of
All who are acquainted with the poems of Cowper cannot have forgotten "the Cock-Fighter's Garland," written on reading the following obituary of the Gentlemen's Magazine for April 1789: "At Tottenham, John Ardesoif, Esq.-a young man of large fortune, and in the splendour of his carriages and horses rivalled by few country gentlemen. His table was that of hospitality, where it may be said he sacrificed too much to conviviality; but if he had his foibles, he had his merits also that far outweighed them. Mr. A. was very fond of cock-fighting; and had a favourite cock, upon which he had made many profitable matches. The last bet he laid upon this cock he lost; which so enraged him, that he had the bird tied to a spit, and roasted alive before a large fire. The screams of the miserable animal were so affecting, that some gentlemen, who were present, attempted to interfere; which so enraged Mr. A., that he seized a poker, and with the most furious violence declared that he would kill the first man who interposed; but in the midst of his passionate asseverations, he fell down dead upon the spot." Such, we are assured, were the circumstances which attended the death of this unfortunate man.
Now, the object of inserting this most humiliating record (the tone of the record itself cannot be admired) of human depravity, is not to testify the avenging hand of an offended God. It is always extremely difficult to assign positively any occurrence of a similar kind to a direct interposition of divine Providence. Men may differ as to their views on this point; but assuredly no man can fail to trace in this wretched man's conduct the brutalising character of the sports in which he delighted. It is not to record his name; but it is, to act as a solemn warning to all, to check the first risings of a gambling spirit; for, be it observed, the game-cock had lost the battle, the owner was also a loser, and, in the moment of rage, he was summoned to the tribunal of his God.*
It is gratifying to know that, by the unremitting exertions of the admirable Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, established in 1824, much has been done to remove the nuisance of the cockpit. From one of its reports now lying before me, and from the newspapers of the week, I perceive that its labours have been successfully called into exercise. The conduct of many of the persons there referred to, engaged in the nefarious practice, fully warrants the strong language which I have felt it necessary to adopt. By the act of parliament 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 59, passed September 9, 1835, sect. 3: " Any person keeping or using any house, room, pit, ground, or other place for running, baiting, or fighting any bull, bear, badger, dog, or other animal (whether of a domestic or wild nature or kind), or for cock-fighting, shall be liable to a penalty of 51. for every day he shall so keep and use the same."
Let the reader trace the cock-feeder or cock-fighter through the labyrinth of his guilty career. Has he ever heard the blasphemous language employed, the recklessness to all moral principle manifested, the derision of all that common humanity could suggest? Has he ever seen the man of high rank by birth and
• We would recommend to our readers' notice, "The Wrongs of the Animal World; to which is subjoined, the Speech of Lord Erskine on the same subject." By David Mushet, Esq. London: Hatchards, Hamilton. 1839.