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"doth not regard it." This reasoning, of course, limits the power of God; it takes from that holiness and hatred of sin, which God alone possesses; and it stifles those feelings of awe, which, even in the most ungodly, must sometimes be awakened by the thought that God is omnipresent. But the Christian not only believes, but delights in that truth, which, while it enlarges his ideas, and elevates his thoughts, of the majesty and "power" which "belongs to God," gives a check to his conduct, and influences the whole tenour of his life. His "thoughts" will be pure, and "brought into subjection," by the knowledge that God "understands" them; and he will not presumptuously entertain any favourite and concealed sin, when he reflects that "the very secrets of his heart are known." The language of the former unto God is, "Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways" (Job, xxi. 14); while the latter derives infinite delight from the connexion between God and his people,-not only as the God who created and sustains them, at whose hands they receive all the good things they enjoy, but that they find, with the Psalmist, that "it is a good thing to draw near to God" (Ps. lxxiii. 28); they "rejoice with joy unspeakable," that they "have received that Spirit of adoption, whereby they cry, Abba, Father;" and from which they make the triumphant deduction, "that if they are children, they are heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ" (Rom. viii. 15, 17).
Our Saviour describes himself under the figure of "a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch" (Mark, xiii.). Every one has the particular duties of his station to perform; to each has been committed one, two, or five talents; and it is as to the manner in which we have fulfilled our duties, taken advantage of our mercies and privileges, and employed our talents, that we shall have one day to give account to Him, "who shall judge the quick and dead at his appearing, and his kingdom." "What have we," asks St. Paul, "that we have not received?" We do not possess one single thing which has not been bestowed upon us by God; and that, not as a reward for acts of righteousness which we have done, but of his free mercy and grace: whatever blessing we possess, we are dependent on him for the present and the future enjoyment of it. So that if we offer any thing to God, we are truly giving him of his own; and we are still, and must continue to be, unprofitable servants, having only done that which it was our duty to do.
We are responsible for our actions; because God has himself given us an example, that we should follow his steps; and because he requires our whole heart.
We are responsible for our time; because it is the only season afforded us of working out our salvation; for "the night will soon come, in which no man can work."
We are responsible for our money; because God has entrusted us with it, as his stewards, to "do good unto all men," and as a means to advance his glory.
We are responsible for our words and thoughts; because they should always be acceptable in God's sight.
After a careful consideration of our position, and a review of the duties which it is incumbent upon us to discharge, we may well exclaim, "Who is sufficient for these things ?" The soul would, indeed, be cast down under the weight of such a responsibility, were we not assured by a merciful God, who sees our necessities, and knows that " we have no power of ourselves to help ourselves," that we shall have grace and strength according to our need; for he is ever willing to give his Holy Spirit to all those who ask it. Our human nature, however, is so corrupt, that we too often fail in our duties. We continually "leave undone those things which we ought to have done, and do those things which we ought not to have done," how, then, can we expect to meet a just and holy God-a God who cannot look upon sin? We are told that in his sight even the moon shineth not, the stars are not pure, and that he chargeth his angels with folly." We have-"thanks be to God for his unspeakable gift!"-a way to escape; a sacrifice has been offered, an atonement made, a reconciliation effected, and that at no less a price than the death of God's own Son; through him our "iniquity is pardoned," our deficiencies supplied, and our nakedness covered by those white robes of his righteousness which he has purchased for us. Let no one, however, suppose, that because salvation is not by works, but by grace through Jesus Christ, that he may therefore "continue in sin;" such a supposition is contrary to the doctrines of the whole Bible: we must be active in "working out our own salvation;" although "it is God which worketh in us both to will and to do of his good pleasure." It is the Spirit of God which inclines the heart to do good; but man is, nevertheless, properly said to apply his own heart (Ps. cxix. 112); he is said also to "purify himself" (1 John, iii. 3), though it is God who "cleanseth us from all unrighteousness" (1 John, i. 9).
The natural tendency of such reflections will
be, to lead us to examine ourselves. How are we discharging those duties which devolve upon us in our respective stations? How are we improving the opportunities offered us? What use are we making of our authority? Are we employed in doing the work which our Master gave us to do? Are we watching closely the advances of our enemy? Are we aware of the disguises which he may assume in order to gain admittance to our hearts during the absence of our Lord? Are we living as faithful servants, looking forward with joy to the promised return of their master; and because we know not the day nor the hour in which he may arrive, are we living in constant preparation for his reception?-for let us remember that when he does arrive, we must each give account of our stewardship; and according as we have either made use of our Master's talents, or hid them in a napkin, so will be our sentence, either to "enter into the joy of our Lord," or to" depart" for ever from his presence "into outer darkness, where shall be weeping, and wailing, and gnashing of teeth?"
May these thoughts "sink deep into the hearts" of all who read them. May we feel more and more our responsibility, and live" as those who must give account, that we may do it with joy, and not with grief." May we consider our utter inability to please God, and thus be led to feel the necessity of, and to seek the offices of, the Holy Spirit to assist our infirmities; and may we have a lively faith, and an increasing love and gratitude to that Saviour, who by his death. has obtained for us the forgiveness of our sins, and that righteousness" without which no man can see the Lord!"
Its Origin and Perpetuity vindicated, from the Old and
BY THE REV. THOMAS PYNE, A.M.
In a former paper, some considerations connected with the day of sacred rest were presented to the readers of this Magazine. The Sabbath was traced through the Old Testament, from the command to sanctify the seventh day given in paradise, to the subsequent memorials of its observance during the patriarchal ages. The manner in which it became a part of the law enjoined to the Jews, at the establishment of their theocracy, was likewise observed. And the light in which it was viewed by the prophets; who, living later than Moses, set it forth rather in its primary spiritual, than in its subsequent ceremonial, character; and spoke of it, in their descriptions of the Gospel-dispensation, as an ordinance still to continue, and to be among the chief blessings, as it would be one of the most widely extended symbols, of the people of Christ. The pleasing task now remains of remind
ing our readers of the obligations, privileges, and uses of the Sabbath or Lord's day from the time of the introduction of Christianity. In doing this, attention will be called to the New Testament portion of this subject.
You will perceive that your day of holy restthat period which every true Christian considers the choicest of his life, the happiest day of the seven, the most favourable of all opportunities for near converse with God, the antepast of heaven-is still a divine ordinance; that it was restored, indeed, by our blessed Lord, from the unrequired services which the Jews in his age had imposed upon it, but dignified by his habitual attention to it; that it was transferred, by this same Lord of the Sabbath and his early Church, to the triumphal day of his resurrection; that it received a new name, though not so as to render its ancient appellative wholly improper; and that, although thus accommodated to the new dispensation, it remained substantially the same, both in spirit, in time, and in obligation; and that it has, in this character, been transmitted to our times, by the universal and uninterrupted practice of the Church of Christ.
The first portion of our proof, that the Sabbath in its moral character is still a divine ordinance, and therefore of constant obligation, will be drawn from the conduct of our Lord, who exonerated it indeed from the burden of ceremonies with which the Pharisees had loaded it, but constantly manifested his reverence for its sanctity. The law of the Lord was in itself "perfect," and suited to the circumstances of those to whom it was given. Had the Jews attended to it, they would have been in a spiritual, as well as a covenant, sense a "holy people." But this was the course which the fallen heart took-they lowered the moral enactments, and increased the ceremonial. In the degree in which they turned aside from heavenlymindedness, did they proclaim with rigour the ritual, and add to its requirements. This was especially the case with the Pharisees in our Lord's time. Nothing could be more corrupt than their moral state; yet nothing more extreme than their self-enjoined austerities. The Sabbath shared in this oppression. As the law had commanded them not to work on that day, they conceived it to be sinful to do the slightest or most needful works; as, for example, to light a fire, to use oil medicinally, though they allowed it as a luxury, and to relieve the suffering. Hence our Lord spoke in such decisive terms of what was lawful to be done on the Sabbath; which very expression-the fact of some things being lawful-establishes the further truth that the Sabbath itself was not abrogated. But let us take the strongest instance to the contrary which occurs in the Gospel-history. "It came to pass that he went through the corn-fields on the Sabbath-day; and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of corn, being hungered. And the Pharisees said unto him, Behold, why do they on the Sabbath-day that which is not lawful?" These ultraritualists construed a mere attention to the infirmities of nature into a reaping of the corn. But hear our Lord's reply, "Have ye never read what David did, when he had need, and was an hungered, he and they that were with him? how he went into the house of God, in the days of Abiathar the high-priest, and did eat the shewbread, which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to them that were with him? Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the Sabbath-days the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath, and are blameless? But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless." Here was the Sabbath not abrogated, not removed from its original sanction. Christ was guiltless of all violation of its command; he did, indeed, but conform to its spirit. And then follows the striking declaration, The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the
Sabbath." It was never designed that such a servile attention to minute offices should be enforced, as would injure, rather than promote, its very object. No; the precept pertaining to the Sabbath, like all other precepts, was a mean to an end. Glory to God, and piety in man, were the simple but grand purposes for which it was given. Ritual observances, of whatever kind, could be of force only to the extent to which they might be needed for the time being. They were weak and beggarly elements in themselves; things which could never make the comers thereunto perfect: but, then, mark beneath all this, and superior to all this, the commanding truth," the Sabbath was made for man." Here the nature of the injunction in paradise is explained: it was not for the Jews, it was not for this or that age, that the Sabbath was given it was designed for the human family at large; for our benefit, our comfort, our instruction, our repose. The Lord of the Sabbath became the Son of man; therefore the Son of man is Lord also of the Sabbath.
The above instance proves that works of necessity may be done on the Sabbath-day. Another will be sufficient to shew that the Saviour vindicated the performance of those of mercy. When the impotent man, who had been healed on the Sabbath-day, was seen carrying his bed, the Pharisees again interfered, rebuking the restored sufferer, and even seeking "to slay Jesus, because he had done these things on the Sabbath-day." But what is the Saviour's answer? "My Father worketh hitherto, and I work." The Almighty, in his universal providence, sustains the world equally on the Sabbath as on other days; and I too have the right of doing good on the Sabbath-day. Nay, he appealed to the consciences of those before him on this very point: "What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep; and if it fall into a pit on the Sabbath-day, will he not lay hold on it and lift it out? How much, then, is a man better than a sheep! wherefore it is lawful to do well on the Sabbath-day."
But though our divine Lord maintained the right of doing good on the Sabbath, and vindicated the institution from all superstitious quietism, he never willingly intruded labours, even though they were to be effected by a word, on the Sabbath. Thus, for instance, at Capernaum, as he taught the people, a demoniac disturbed the worshippers by his cries, and our Lord instantly dispossessed him. So, too, on the same day, entering into Simon's house, he cured his relative of a fever; yet it was not till after the sun was set, i. e. the Sabbath ended, that he suffered the multitudes to be brought to him for healing.
In fact, our Lord always honoured the Sabbath in the highest degree in his practice. Upwards of ten times, during his ministry, is express mention made of his observation of, or respect for, the Sabbath; while on more than one occasion is such language as this used: "He went into the synagogue, as his custom was, and taught the people." What more decisive, on the subject of the Sabbath, than this reference to the habit of his life, can we either have or desire? Indeed, Christ fulfilled all righteousness; and though greater than the temple, the temple found him a constant worshipper whenever in Jerusalem on the Sabbath; and the synagogues were radiated by his presence in his numerous journeys of mercy. Nor did he neglect to impress the duty on his followers: "Thou knowest the commandments;" "Keep the commandments." This was the constant tenour of his injunctions; yet among these "commandments" the Sabbath was a chief. His discourses, too, with the disciples shewed that he designed and expected the perpetuity of this institution. "Pray ye," was his language, referring to the destruction of Jerusalem," that your flight be not on the Sabbath-day;" yet this event- the flight of the disciples-was not to occur for nearly half a cen
tury after the abolition of the ceremonial law by Christ's death on Calvary.
And it was in this manner that the early disciples understood their Saviour's purposes. Had our Lord designed to overthrow the consecration of a seventh portion of our time, certainly those on whom he had condescended to bestow his familiar friendship would have known the fact, and would have desisted from its observance. Yet what do we find? Immediately on his death, the holy women, anxious as they were to anoint the body, rested the Sabbath-day, according to the commandment. And Paul, who always gloried in declaring that he had received the knowledge of divine truth from Christ himself, "went into the synagogue at Thessalonica, as his manner was, and three Sabbath-days reasoned with them out of the Scriptures;" " and he reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath.”
But, certain as, from the above considerations, it is that the primitive Christians did not feel themselves released from the obligations of this season of privilege, some remarks are due on the change of the day. Four chief preliminary thoughts should be kept in mind on this point. They will serve to make our after-testimonies from Scripture easy. First, the genius of the religion of Christ is eminently spiritual. Hence whatever was merely ritual, or of the nature of ceremony, was abrogated when the Gospel came. so far, therefore, as the precise period, the seventh day in preference to any other day, was concerned, it fell in importance.
Secondly, Christianity was intended to be a universal religion. This would go far to remove the possibility of maintaining, with any precision, the seventh day. When the people of God dwelt in the narrow Canaan, they could all keep the same Sabbath; but when the worshippers of Jehovah should be found in every land, that period could not be the same; for it is yet Saturday in New Zealand when it is Sunday in Britain. Or, again, to take a stronger case, suppose two ships to leave the same port, and, after going round the world, one in an easterly, the other in a westerly, direction, to meet again in the same longitude as that from which they started; being friendly and Christian, (and O, that every ship's crew were so! how great an aid would they be to our missionaries! how happy the effects of their visits upon the uncivilised lands!) they determine on keeping the Sabbath. But one ship has gained, the other has lost, a day in its reckoning; one keeps the Sunday on the Saturday, the other on the Monday of the place from which they started. This proves that the exact period is of little consideration, in reference to a religion intended to be universal. It leaves the fact of the duty of consecrating to God the seventh portion of time untouched, but shews the inconsistency of attaching an undue importance to a given day.
But, thirdly, The Gospel was designed to descend to the remotest ages. Here again, not to insist on the fact, that the day on which the Sabbath was kept, when the ordinance was restored in the wilderness, was probably not the seventh day of creation, and that therefore the Jews are uncertain as to the proper day of their Sabbath; the fact of the Julian and Gregorian intercalations have undeniably thrown the matter into confusion; and we are nearly certain that the present Jewish Sabbath is not the seventh day. Yet another intercalary year, and another, and so on, will be requisite in the descent of ages; and thus the precise day must grow in a series more obscure.
And then comes, fourthly, The distinctively Gospel-fact of the completion of our redemption in the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ. The Jewish Sabbath, though it lost none of its force as a memorial of creation, was specially held to commemorate the deliverance of Israel from Egyptian bondage: "Remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord thy God brought thee out
thence through a mighty hand and by a stretched-out arm; therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the Sabbath." How appropriate then,-I may add how necessary,-that when Christ arose, and thus accomplished our redemption from a yet more fatal bondage, the day should be changed from that of the type to that of the glorious circumstance which fulfilled it! It is as a new creation that the Gospel is continually spoken of. Without the resurrection of Christ, we must have remained dead in sin, and eternally hopeless. When, then, this great work was achieved, how naturally would the day of its consummation be commemorated! and as the Jewish law was now virtually abrogated, how readily would the infant Church turn from the lesser deliverance-in which indeed the Gentiles had not partaken, and were not interested to maintain the sanctity of this triumphal day! And in truth it was in this manner that the Lord's day came to be honoured. None of the early Christians thought of relinquishing the Sabbath: the tendency of their minds was quite the other way. Many of them, especially the Jewish converts, kept two days holy in each week. They were permitted to act thus, as likewise to attend to other Mosaic ordinances, because the design on God's part, in causing the Gospel to supersede the law, was, to do nothing violently; but as the Jewish polity gradually vanished, and especially after the destruction of the temple, the Lord's day had generally taken the place of the other Sabbath. And this was under the sanction of inspiration. Christ during his lifetime foretold that he would thus honour the first day: he appeared four times to the disciples on the very day of his resurrection. At the interval of a week, again the infant Church is assembled for eucharistic purposes, and again he came among them. The descent of the Holy Ghost on Pentecost was on our Lord's day. It is told of Paul, that "we came to Troas, where we abode seven days; and upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow." In this incident we learn that the custom prevailed in a city distant from Jerusalem of keeping the Lord's day; that the apostle, who preached by direct communication from on high, joined in its sanctification, and that he deferred his journey for that purpose. In the same spirit we find this apostle commanding the Corinthians to do that which he had given order of in other churches, viz. the making charitable collections on the first day of the week; while, it being evident that this was the day chiefly used for the assembling together of believers, he reproves some who forsook those opportunities of grace. But certain as is the divine sanction of the Lord's day, from the above passages, a stronger argument yet remains, from the remark of St. Paul to the Hebrews: "There remaineth therefore a rest (or a Sabbath) for the people of God;" in which passage he distinguishes the rest from that of Canaan and the Jewish Sabbath; and though doubtless he points our minds to the eternal Sabbath, seems clearly to imply "the keeping of a Sabbath," (as our marginal reading has it,) by the people of God under the New Testament dispensation; in which sense the passage exactly tallies with the prophecy respecting the universal Church of Christ;-" It shall come to pass, that from one Sabbath to another shal! all flesh come to worship before me, saith the Lord." But the divine record carries us beyond the time of St. Paul. We advance to the close of the first century. The Jewish theocracy is wholly overthrown; the sacrifices have ceased; the temple is destroyed; Jerusalem is trodden down of the Gentiles; the people are scattered: the Sabbath, vainly trusted in as a ceremonial observance, its weightier duties neglected, had been a chief means of Judah's destruction and dispersion, by the people permitting, as Josephus informs us, the Romans to carry on their work on the seventh day,
while they themselves remained inactive;-yet does the Christian's day of rest triumph. St. John, the last of the apostles, is an old man, and in banishment; yet the wilderness blooms as a garden of the Lord. was in the spirit on the Lord's day." Here the day, its name, its heavenly character, at once strike us. There is no explanation-nothing indicative of the meaning of so remarkable a designation, "the Lord's day." Can we doubt, that, like that institution which received a kindred name, "the Lord's supper," it was deemed of divine authority, and commonly known and honoured among Christians? Malachi, the last of the prophets under the law, had referred familiarly to the seventh-day rest, and rebuked his people for their disposition to despise it. John, the survivor of the apostles, speaking by revelation in the distant Patmos, but with a voice that should be heard by the Church in all ages and places, alludes, as to an ordinance equally notorious and authoritative, to the Christian's day of rest, and intimates the rapture he experienced in its spiritual services. This decides the matter, and gives, and alone can give, the just force to that word of prophecy which went so long before; "the stone which the builders refused, Christ Jesus, is become the head-stone of the corner (he is raised from the dead). This is the Lord's doing; it is marvellous in our eyes." This (day of Christ's and the Church's triumph) is the day which the Lord hath made, or hath appointed or consecrated, as the chief of days; we will be glad and rejoice in it. Yet the keeping of the first day, rather than the seventh, was, after all, as has been hinted, a secondary thing: to have given more plenary instructions respecting it, might have been raising an ordinance into a principle; it might have run counter to that rule of Christian freedom, so justly applied by St. Paul to the Judaic severities, "Let no man judge you as to the Sabbath-day :" but, from what has just been stated, the practice of the apostles was not uncertain; nor has the universal duty of sanctifying the Lord's day been left obscure.
A remark or two is due in reference to the practice of the Church from the close of the canon of Scripture. The Christian fathers, especially those of primitive antiquity, must ever be considered to have a certain weight on such a point as this before us,-just as our maintenance of the Lord's day will be a testimony of the opinion of the universal Church in the present age to remote posterity. The abuse of their authority by some, though it should make us jealous over ourselves in using them, will never justify us in wholly throwing them aside. All sections of the Church are glad to appeal to them when they favour their views; and we therefore may be satisfied to hear them on such a question as that of the Christian Sabbath,—a matter in which not this or that band of professing people is interested, but in which the whole brotherhood of man has a property. It would take too long to mention all the testimonies of Justin Martyr, Irenæus, Tertullian, Dionysius, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, Epiphanius, Athanasius, and Constantine. Two citations may suffice- -one from Ignatius, because he lived in the apostles' age: "Let us," he says, "no more sabbatise, i. e. keep the seventh day; but let us keep the Lord's day, on which our Lord arose." The other, the decision of the council of Laodicea, A.D. 363, which offers the general opinion of the Church at that time: "Christians ought not to rest on the seventh day; but, preferring the Lord's day, to rest as Christians." Thus then the day was honoured: it would be needless to come further down for testimonies, because the appointment was now universally recognised. We may content ourselves with the words of the learned Bishop Andrews: "I should hold it too long," he says, 66 to cite them (i. e. authorities to this point) in particular; I avow it, on my credit, that there is not an ecclesiastical writer in whom they are not found."
Here I might pause, and leave the matter of the observance of the Lord's day as a binding duty on the conscience; but I am glad to add-and it is according with the genius of the Gospel for me to add-that it is a day of privilege as well as of duty; that however obligatory it be upon us as the servants of our heavenly Master, it offers even a more powerful inducement as the children of our Lord and Saviour. What is hea
ven but a perpetual Sabbath? And what would earth without its Sabbaths become, but almost a hell? Yes; this is indeed the best day of the seven-the gem of the week-the means of repose from labour for man and beast; of bringing persons together in peace and order who might never otherwise meet, or who, if they met, might do so with only selfish or worldly ends-of offering to man society without its disadvantages; of yielding him needful rest, without the temptations incident to idleness;-but above and beyond all, and in comparison with which earthly advantages are as nothing, of giving us the opportunity of learning the knowledge of the holy Scriptures; and by consecrating the seventh, of regulating, by a reference to God and to eternity, all other portions of our time.
Happy then, Christian readers, are you in the possession of such a gift as this; and still more happy in knowing rightly how to use it. Happy in drawing near to the throne of grace in the assembly of the saints; and in spending its remaining hours in prayer and study, and tranquil because Christianised repose. Happy in the break which these seasons cause in the hurry and whirl of the week; in the inspiring duties which they enjoin, and the means of preparation for glory which they afford. May you even yet more fully value this treasure! May you be jealous of its bright yet winged moments! May it ever be far from you to violate a period which the universal Father in his word and providence has set apart; in which your Saviour triumphed; and apostles and martyrs have received that light and grace which has served to illuminate the world! Who, I ask, can break the Lord's day, and not expose himself to the dereliction of God, to the arrows of Satan, to the bitter fruits of guilt in this world and eternity? Who can sanctify it, and not improve in spiritual things; become mighty in the Scriptures; know the efficacy of prayer; walk in the path of life? A term of seven years is considered the utmost requisite for teaching a man a trade or profession in life; but he who lives to the age of seventy years passes ten of these years in Sabbaths; ten years secluded from the world; ten years in which neither business nor pleasure has a right to intrude itself upon his privacy; ten years, not in succession, when weariness might steal over him, but offered with such intervals as may be most favourable to keep up the zest for heavenly truth; for surely, if the seclusion of one day in seven causes men to return to worldly business with fresh activity, the six days devoted to the world may well make us doubly anxious to improve this smaller portion.
Consider, then, how much time you really have for God and your souls; be careful to improve it as you should; flee equally from sloth and worldly activity upon it; determine, in the strength of God, to consecrate it to the Divine service-and you will find an atmosphere of holy love and peace, and content and hope diffused over all your days; and yet of all, this day the sweetest, the brightest, the holiest, the most hopeful, the most heavenly, the best!
BISHOP PATRICK-CONTROVERSY WITH THE ROMANISTS, 1688.*
IN November 1686 a very heavy load fell upon me; for the Earl of Rochester (lord treasurer) sent for me and Dr. Jane, dean of Gloucester (then in waiting at From "The Autobiography of Symon Patrick, D.D., Bishop of Ely." Oxford, 1839.
court), to let us know that the king pressed him very much to change his religion, and, in order to it, hear what his priests could say to persuade him to it. He was so urgent, that he had at last consented to hear them, provided he might have some priests of our Church to answer what they said; that, being satisfied what could be said on both sides, he might be the better able to judge what he should join withal. The king liked his motion well, and bade him choose two, and he would bring two other to confer with them. He named several; but the king liked Dr. Jane and me best, and appointed a time when we should meet. We told my lord treasurer that we thought it would be most serviceable to him, if this conference was managed by writing; but he told us the king was resolved to have it otherwise, by discourse before himself. To which we submitted; and on the 29th of November were ordered to be at Whitehall precisely at four o'clock in the evening. Accordingly we went then to the place where we were appointed to go, which was Mr. Chiffins' lodgings. There we sat in the hinder room till three quarters past four; and then his majesty came to us, and told us, "he hoped we did not wonder he had desired this conference to which he had called us: for it was out of his great kindness to the lord treasurer, whose salvation he could not but wish. For we know that every one that loved his religion, could not but desire others should be of it, as St. Paul wished all that heard him might be such as he was, except his bonds.' And he was glad," he said, "that my lord treasurer had pitched upon us two to manage this conference; for Dr. Jane's father was with them abroad, and he had known me long, from whom he had received some papers, which I thought he had forgot." Then he bade Mr. Chiffins make a fire in the king's room next to that where we were. About five o'clock we were carried in, where we found a table set, with a great chair near the middle of the room, and, at the end of it next the door, another table with candles upon it, where we stood. After a little while the lord treasurer came in, and then the king, with two priests, father Giffard and father Godwin; and none else were admitted. Immediately the king began to tell us the great desire he had of the lord treasurer's salvation, which proceeded from his kindness to him, and was the occasion of this meeting; for he could not but entreat him to receive instruction. And then he related how he had sent father Giffard to him, and what passed between them; which the lord treasurer presently declared more fully, reading the letter and Dr. Jane's answer to it. And so we were ready to begin a debate upon two points, had not father Giffard diverted us by a long speech which he made, to shew what regard was to be had to the Church and to its definitions; and that, it having determined the doctrine of transubstantiation, against which we made our greatest objections, we must shew which Fathers had contradicted it, not by speeches, but in their sermons, homilies, catechisms, &c.; for they could shew where in such discourses they did assert it. And particularly Justin Martyr, in his "Apology," where he declares what the faith of Christians was. And so he imperfectly related his words; and then some of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, and of Gregory Nyssen. We told him we must find what the right faith was before we could tell which Church it was safe to live and die in; because we could not tell whether a society of men were a Church or no till we knew what they believed. Now we were ready to shew that the doctrine of transubstantiation was no part of the Christian faith, but contrary to it; and we desired to be tried by those very testimonies which they had produced. And so we began to shew what Justin Martyr's opinion was; and from him passed by Irenæus, and then cleared that of Cyril, and that of Gregory Nyssen, and so proceeded to urge them with that of St. Austin, in his book "de Doctrina Christiana," and another of his