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withhold from Scindia as a punish- territory on that side, and of establishment for his duplicity*), with a small ing a confederation with several petty arrondissement ; and from thence the states. The Nawab of Bhopal, in reconnexion with the eastern coast of turn for his faithful services in the the peninsula, and with the previous Pindarry war, and certain good offices British possessions under the Bengal towards the British in a season of adPresidency, is formed by the Nagpore versity, received five districts situated cessions, commencing from Jilpy Au- on the western frontier, which had meneir. This consists of an irregular been ceded by the Peishwa. The belt,varying in breadth from fifty to one Rajas of Dutteah, Jhansee, and Simphundred and fiftymiles; comprehending, thur, were confirmed in the territory in the first instance, both banks of the they held, under the condition of supTaptee, and subsequently both banks plying a quota of troops when reof the Nerbudda to its source; from quired by the British Government. whence the districts of Sergoojah and This species of alliance was not conJushpore connect with the British dis- fined to the eastern frontiers of Maltricts of Palamao and Chotah Nagpore. wa; it also extended along its northern To the northward, it joins Bundle- and western boundaries, in pursuance cund and the Bhopal territory; and of the policy kept in view during the to the southward, the reserved do- negociations with the Mahratta powers, minions of Nagpore, along the Ma- of making the relinquishment of claims hadeo range of hills, and the territory for tribute on the Rajpoot states, exruled by the Patan Nawab of Ellicha- cept through the medium of the Bripore, who has been rewarded, for his tish Government, an indispensible arattachment to the British, by some ticle of every treaty. The accomplishlands from the Nagpore and Poonah ment of this important object was territories. By the aforegoing acqui- accordingly followed by agreements sitions, with the exception of a tract, with the several states of Karaollee, thirty-five miles broad, on each side Jeypore, Boondee, Kishenghur, Joudof Asseer, there is an unbroken line pore, Kotah, Oudeypore, Dungurpore, of communication through British ter. Banswarrah, and Dhar.
These petty ritory from Bombay to Calcutta, as princes separately entered into enthere is likewise from Madras to Bom- gagements of subordivate alliance with bay. The former. Mahratta war hav- the British Government, for the guaing been attended with the similar rantee of their respective dominions result of establishing a continuity of against all enemies whatsoever. All dominion between Madras and Cal. these alliances contain in substance cutta; the communication between the same stipulations: the acknowthe three Presidencies may now be ledgment of British supremacy, a reconsidered as complete.
nunciation of all communication with The acquisition of the Peishwa's foreign states, an acquiescence in Brirights in Malwa, by the Poonah tish arbitration on all the points of treaty, furnished the means of form. difference with their neighbours, and ing a compact boundary to the British
an engagement to supply, according to * Orders were pretended to be issued by this
their respective means, a certain conchief for the surrender of this strongly fortified tingent of troops.* hill; but the Killedar in command refused to ad.
Thus it will be seen that the several mit the British. Upon iis reduction, however, instructions from Scindiah were discovered in the Mahratta states and the Nizam's dofort, enjoining the Killedar to pay no attention
minions are, in a considerable meato counter orders, but to hold out as long as possible. These instructions were forwarded by sure, encompassed by British terriLord Hastings to Sciudials, conformably to his
tories, or by the petty states acknowpractice of returning to the right owner whatever documents of hostile tendency to his Government fell into his possession.
* Blacker, 434-436.
ledging British supremacy. The Nag, ranny with which they had been 'so pore and Hydrabad territories, taken long vexed by the Mahrattas. At the collectively, are entirely surrounded same time, though their present inby the British possessions; Scindiah clination and interest make them and Holkar, by the British and petty staunch allies of the British, yet a states in about equal proportions; and future change of circumstances bas Guzerat by the same and the sea, been provided for by raising the Bhowhich is no less a part of British do- pal Nawab, and the two Patan adminion. Since the year 1817, Scin- venturers, Ameer Khan and Ghufoor diah, without any fresh formal obliga- Khan, to consideration in this part of tions, has subsided into a sort of de- India, as a counterpoise to the prependence upon the British Govern- ponderating influence of the Hindoos, ment, whose interference he has so- who would otherwise have been sole licited in the settlement of disputes masters of the country. with his Rajpoot and Grassiah depen- Even the turbulent Patans were dents. As a further security, the mi- provided for in the British or subliltary establishment in Central India, sidiary service: for it was an imporincluding those of Scindiah and Hol- tant part of Lord Hastings' original kar, and comprehending Sebundies plan of final settlement and tranquiland garrisons, in the aggregate amount lity, not to drive to despair the whole to little more tnan 70,000 men.* swarm of military adventurers, by de
A portion of the advantages ob- priving them suddenly and entirely of tained in the Mahratta war was libe- their habitual means of subsistence; rally relinquished in favour of the but to destroy those only whose halawful chief of the Mahrattas, who bits were at utter variance with our was reinstated on the throne of his system of rule; and so to balance the ancestors, the Rajas of Sattara, with a hopes and fears of the rest, as to territory bounded to the west by the render them instrumental in the estaGhats, the Warna and the Krishna blishment of order. This difficult rivers to the south, the Neera and affair (the disposal of the Patans), as Bheema to the north, and the fron- well as the arrangements in Rajpootiers of the Nizam's dominions to the tana, was chiefly effected by the skill east. The sovereignty of the Nag- and judgment of Sir D. Ochterlony, pore state was conferred on Bajee whose measures met with the Governor Row Bhoosla, grandson of a former General's uniform approbation. raja.t
The financial improvements in the The benefits which have sprung native states may be briefly enumefrom the triumph of British power, rated thus : Scindiah’s saving in rehave not been solely absorbed by us; ductions alone is not less than twenty the native princes participate in those lacs per annum. The rent in the city benefits, and none to a greater de- and districts of Oujeen rose from gree than the Rajpoots, who, besides 1,25,000 rupees in 1817 to nearly the recovery of old, and the acqui- three lacs. The revenue of Bhilsa sition of new, territories, as well as yielded, in 1817, 40,000 rupees; in the remission of tribute, enjoy an 1820, 2,50,000. The Holkar reveexemption from the oppressive ty- nues, from Malwa and Nemaur were,
in 1817, 4,41,679 rupees; in 1819-20, * In 1817, the regular troops of Holkar and Scindiah alone, exclusive of Pindarries, Sebun
16,96,183. The Puar states, in 1817, dies, &c. were 64,000.
afforded a revenue of no more than † Appa Saheb continnes an expatriated fugitive. The Ex-Peishwa seems reconciled to his fate; 30,000 rupees; in the year 1820, they be bathes daily in the Ganges, indulges in the collected more than three lacs and highest style of living of a Bralimin, is surrounded by low sycophants, and maintains three ex
three-quarters. The other states expensive sels of dancing girls.
hibit a large but not so striking in
The expenses of collection which the British Government alone in the Scindiah and Holkar states, could exercise, would be sufficient to which were as high as 40 per cent., do impose a due degree of restraint upon not exceed 15 in the latter and 25 in a host of greedy pretenders, aspiring, the former
by right of birth or the sword, to the But the specific benefits, whether territorial sovereignties of this wide territorial or financial, reaped by any expanse:* native power, are insiguificant in com- These beneficent views have been parison with the advantages conferred carried in full effect, and “the conin the establishment of a system of trast presented by a review of the government in Central India; a por- condition of Central India in 1821, to tion of the country from whence we what it was four years before, will had been entirely excluded, and which appear almost incredible to any perwas long the nest of disorder, and the son who has not contemplated upon arena of a general scramble for do- the spot, the rapid progress of thé minion. Marquess Hastings had al change, and studied the causes by ways been of opinion that, without a which it has been produced.” These complete reform of the condition of it would be tedious, and perhaps irreCentral India, without so changing levant to recite here, but they may be the mutual relations of the several found recorded in tlic work of that princes and associations as to remove officer (himself an efficient instrument all inducement to predatory and am- of the change), from which the aforebitious adventure, on the extensive going passage is borrowed.t By inscale it was prosecuted upon, no par- stilling into all classes the advantages tial measures could prevent the speedy attending order and regularity; by recurrence of the evil, probably in a encouraging agriculture and the buildmore formidable shape. His Lordship ing of towns and hamlets; by inviting plainly saw that mere temporary ex- the industrious to return to their pedients would be ineffectual ; and that homes, and converting the robber into no plan would provide security for the cultivator ; by making good roads the future that did not determine the through every part of the country ; respective pretensions to dominion, so and by reforming the wild tribes as to distinguish, by a strong line of through promoting among them a fadiscrimination, the chief of a regular miliar intercourse with other classes ; government from the leader of a law. the government of Lord Hastings unless banditti. His mind was fully con- ostentatiously wrought so surprizing an vinced, that without ascertaining who alteration in this extensive tract. The were the lawful possessors, and bind
same author and actor to whom we ing them in such a league, as should have just referred asserts, that “ hison one hand check their disposition tory affords few examples where a to encroach on one another; and on change in the political condition of a the other hand, should unite them by country has been attended with such a sense of common interest against a an aggregate of increased happiness common enemy, little would be ac- to its inhabitants, as that which wa complished towards eradicating the effected within four years in Central prevailing system. He did not despair India; and it is pleasing to think that, of being able to form such a combi- with the exception of suppressing a nation, by offering the general gua- few Bheel robbers, peace was restorrantee and protection of the British
* Prinsep, 216, 217. Government :: it was evident that
† Sir John Malcolm's Memoir, chap. xv. This nothing short of that inflexible rigour chapter deserves to be read by all who entertain of controul, and irresistible power
any scruples respecting the justice or policy of
there measures which have made the British power of enforcing obedience to its award, paramount in Malwai
ed, and has hitherto been maintain so that it is not only scarcely possible ed, without one musket being fired. that “ the dram of base” should, unIt was viewed from the first as a work perceived, contaminate “the noble which force could never accomplish; substance ;" but visionary blemishes and if there is one ground beyond all may be suggested by the microscopic others, on which hopes of continued eye of narrow politicians. The pubtranquillity can rest, it is that of its licity thus given to the grounds and having been established in the manner motives of his policy must, however, described.”
be a source of satisfaction to such a There yet remains another aspect mind as that of Lord Hastings, who in which to regard the comprehensive declared, on a mémorable occasion, measures of Lord Hastings, namely, that “it is salutary for supreme auwith respect to their financial effects. thority, even when its intentions are It is a popular method to estimate the most pure, to look to the controul of value of successful schemes of domis public scrutiny;" and who might say nion by reference to their immediate with Tiberius, in his better mood, si production of increased revenue; al quis quidem locutus aliter fuerit, dabo though it betrays a narrowness of operam ut rationem factorum meorum judgment, since the most politic en- dictorumque reddam.* largement of territory sometimes To answer every cavil, and dissiyields no instant pecuniary benefit, pate every scruple, respecting the though the suture harvest is abun- soundness of Lord Hastings' policy, dant: as in the case of a mercantile would lead us into a long and weariconcern, where the profits are ap- some investigation. We shall, thereplied to augment the capital. It will, fore, only advert to two points upon however, be seen, that, even in this which the objections advanced appear point of view, the benefits of Lord
to possess any substance. Hastings' system have been materially
The chief point, the consideration felt; but these details it will be more
of which involves, in fact, most of the convenient to enter upon hereafter; others, is that deviation on the part of meanwhile we may just observe, that Marquess Hastings from the limited in the year 1805-6, the extra charge views entertained in England, and the consequent upon the rupture with commencing his military operations, Holkar, was larger than in the year the ostensible object of which 1817-18, when the whole strength of the chastisement of a petty gang of the three Presidencies was last brought freebooters, upon such a large and into the field.*
expensive scale. A candid consideraMeasures so important, so exten- tion of the very imperfect sketch we sive, so pregnant with danger and dif- have already furnished of the circumficulty, however auspiciously con- stances in which the Supreme Goducted, cannot escape criticism and vernment was placed at the beginning objection ; especially as the transac- of the Pindarry war, will have anticitions of a Governor General of India pated, in some degree, this objection, pass repeated ordeals at home and and amply justified Lord Hastings. abroad. Every project or scheme of The proceedings against the Pindarry policy adopted in India must, with all hordes in the season of 1816-17, its grounds and appurtenances, be though successful, were productive of examined, canvassed, and scrutinized, such enormous expense as to demonby the members of the Supreme Go- strate at once the inexpediency of parvernment abroad, by the Court of tial or defensive arrangements, which, Directors, the Board of Controul, the moreover, by the most favourable Ministry, the Parliament at home; calculation, would not secure our pro
* Sucton. c. 2.
vinces from invasion, and our subjects to be able to declare with 'sincerity, from ruin. It was this conviction that the exclusive object of his prethat led the council of Fort-William sent preparations was to get rid of to concur unanimously in the com- the greatest pest that society ever mencement of offensive operations, experienced.”. before the arrival of a sanction from The wisdom and foresight of the home. Early in the season, the Governor General became apparent Marquess became sensible of the real with the sudden development of that state of feeling entertained towards extensive combination which had been us by the native powers, and the im- secretly organizing against British dopossibility of relying upon their good minion, and which included the Ghoorfaith. He accordingly digested that khas of Nepaul, whose forces were comprehensive plan which brought assembling, and who were known to into play the disposable force of the be in close communication with the three Presidencies. In furtherance of princes of Hindostan, when the real his plan, his Lordship boldly assumed state of affairs burst upon public view. the principle, in his transactions with The magnitude of the scene might the Mahratta powers of Central India, have induced many to contract their that in the operations against the Pin- plans in proportion to the augmentadarries, no neutrality could be suffer- tion of the danger ; but to the eye of ed, but all states should be required, Lord Hastings, these crude attempts (for it could be the interest of no go- to thwart his designs, presented but vernment to refuse its concurrence), the means of establishing the settleto join in the league for their suppres- ment he proposed for India upon a sion, under conditions, securing their broader and more solid foundation; active co-operation, as well in the pre- so just and so unbounded was his sent measures of care, as in those pro- confidence in the machinery he had visions against the future rise of these prepared for the accomplishment of or similar occasions into dangerous his purpose. importance.*
It was the peculiar merit of Lord In communicating the course he Hastings' plan of operations that such was about to adopt to the council at means were placed at command, as Fort-William, previous to taking the should make the cause of the Mah. field, the Governor General briefly rattas desperate under any combinadeclared his reasons for departing from tion of circumstances; and the more the restricted views which seemed to the events were traced in the order of be entertained at home; and took occurrence, the more reason will be upon himself the undivided responsi- found to admire the forecast which so bility of acting without the full sanc- disposed those means, that not one tion of the authorities in England; adverse circumstance or occasion of feeling confident that the result would danger arose without its remedy being justify his determination in the eyes ready at hand. of those authorities, and of the British The other point which we shall nation. “It was his boast,” he said, notice, is the deposition of the head “ to have an earnest desire to accom- of the Mahratta empire; a strong plish every thing by pacific means, and measure, and certainly, at first view, * Those who doubt the right of so intersering,
wearing the semblance of harshness, may consult Grotius, (de Jur. B. et P. 1.2. C. 20). justifiable only by very weighty conand Valtel (l. 2. c. 1.); the former says : Scien. siderations. The principal motives dum quoque est, reges et qui par regibus jus obtinent, jus habere poenas posceudi, non tantùm
which influenced the Marquess to this ob injurias in se aur subditos suos commissas, sed step will briefly be stated. The reet obeas quic ipsos peculiariter non tangani, sed in quisibusvis personis jus naturae aut gentium immaniler violani,
* Prinsep, 220,